GET FREE NETFLIX PREMIUM ACCOUNTS – Email ID & PASSWORDS

Are you looking to get Free Netflix Account? If yes, then today you are landed at the very right page. Today In this article, we are going to share the email ID and password of Netflix premium account for free. So, if you are interested in getting Free Netflix Accounts then keep reading this article.

Netflix is currently the most trending application that is used by millions of users to watch a favorite TV series, TV Shows, Movies, Cartoons, Animes, etc. Netflix has come exclusive TV series too which are available only on Netflix and if you want to watch them then you need to purchase the Netflix subscription which is very expensive. So, if you are a student like me then I can understand the pain of saving money and that’s why we are sharing free email id and password of Netflix accounts. You can have a look at the plans which Netflix is offering, if you are able to afford them then consider purchasing them otherwise you can use our free method to get Netflix.

Netflix Plans and Prices

You should know about Netflix Premium account strategies. Basically, there are 3 Netflix programs

1.Basic Plan

Now the basic plan is for those who just want to use the account just for themselves and don’t want to share it with others. It is the cheapest plan available on Netflix and most students only buy this plan because it is inexpensive and does its job pretty well. However, you will not get any additional features in this plan. Now the price of a basic plan can vary from country to country. In India, the price of a Netflix basic plan is 499INR PM.

2.Standard Plan

The Netflix Standard Plan is for those who are willing to share their account with one or two of their friends. This plan is the most cost-effective because it can handle two displays at the same time and also supports HD resolution that is not available in the Basic Plan. In addition to HD and more screen, there are no more additional functions compared to the basic plan. In India, the price of a Netflix plan is 649INR PM.

3.Premium Plan

This is the most expensive Netflix plan available and is good for those who are on a budget and want the best Netflix features. This Netflix plan can easily handle 4 screens at once and it also has HD and Ultra HD features that will enhance your user experience. In India, the price of Netflix’s premium plan is 799INR PM.

Advantage of using Free Netflix Accounts

  • Don’t have to spend your hard-earned money on buying the subscription of expensive Netflix, as you can get it for free now.
  • You can watch unlimited Movies, TV Shows, TV Series, etc for free.
  • Most of the accounts listed below are either Standard or Premium which means 2-4 people can easily use the same account at one time.
  • You can easily use this Netflix account on your Smart TV, Laptop, PC, Tablet, and Smartphone.

Proving Mental Injury

In its recent decision of Saadati v. Moorhead, 2017 SCC 28, the Supreme Court of Canada held that courts may award damages for mental injury based on the testimony of lay witnesses and without expert evidence establishing an identifiable medical diagnosis or condition.

The plaintiff was injured when his tractor-truck was struck by a vehicle driven by the defendant. The plaintiff sued the defendant for negligence, claiming he had suffered mental injury from the accident.

At the trial level, the BC Supreme Court found the accident had indeed caused the plaintiff’s psychological injury, including a personality change and cognitive difficulties. This finding was not based on an identified medical cause or expert evidence, but rather on the testimony of the plaintiff’s friends and family. These lay witnesses testified that the plaintiff was a funny, energetic, and charming individual prior to the accident, but had become sullen and prone to mood swings. His close relationships with others had deteriorated. The BC Supreme Court awarded the plaintiff $100,000 in non-pecuniary damages.

On appeal, the BC Court of Appeal reversed the trial judge’s decision, finding that the plaintiff’s claim could not succeed, as he had not demonstrated with expert evidence a medically recognized psychiatric or psychological injury.

The Supreme Court of Canada (SCC) restored the trial judge’s decision on the basis that a finding of legally compensable mental injury need not rest, in whole or in part, on the claimant proving a recognized psychiatric injury through expert evidence.

The law of negligence accords identical treatment to mental and physical injury.   As with physical injury, a plaintiff alleging mental injury still needs satisfy the criteria applicable to any successful action in negligence – i.e. the existence of a duty of care owed by the defendant to the plaintiff, a breach of that duty, and resulting harm to the plaintiff causally connected to the breach. In the case of mental injuries specifically, the plaintiff must also demonstrate that the injury is serious, prolonged, and rises above the ordinary annoyances, anxieties, and fears that come with living in civil society.

In Saadati, the SCC emphasized that a court adjudicating a claim of mental injury should not be concerned with diagnosis, but rather symptoms and their effects. There is no necessary relationship between reasonably foreseeable mental injury and a diagnostic classification scheme; rather, the court’s inquiry should be directed to the level of harm that the claimant’s particular symptoms represent, not whether a label could be attached to them. While expert evidence can assist in determining whether or not a mental injury has been shown, such evidence is not necessary, and a court can find mental injury based on other evidence, including the testimony of family and friends.

It remains open to the defendant, in rebutting a claim, to call expert evidence establishing that the accident cannot have caused any mental injury, or at least any mental injury known to psychiatry.

Based on the foregoing principles, the SCC found no legal error in the trial judge’s treatment of the lay witness testimony concerning the plaintiff’s mental symptoms, even in the absence of expert testimony associating them with an identified condition. The SCC restored the trial judge’s award of $100,000.

A good question: the Alberta Court of Queen’s Bench clarifies Questioning on Affidavit

In Alberta (AG) v Alberta Power (2000) Ltd (“Alberta Power”),[1] the Alberta Court of Queen’s Bench helpfully explains how Questioning on Affidavit differs from Questioning on Discovery, including by offering several practical examples. The case also summarizes key principles that govern the scope of Questioning on Affidavit. Moving forward, Alberta Power will likely be a common authority cited in applications to determine the validity of objections made in Questioning on Affidavit.

Questioning on Affidavit versus Questioning on Discovery

Writing for the Court, Chief Justice Wittmann explained that although Questioning on Discovery is “in the nature” of a cross-examination, it is not a “true” cross-examination as is Questioning on Affidavit.[2] This subtle distinction between the two modes of Questioning produces significant practical differences. For example, Questioning on Affidavit may involve questions that solely relate to credibility.[3] By contrast, these types of questions are generally impermissible in Questioning on Discovery.[4] Additionally, the transcript from a Questioning on Affidavit is placed before the Court in its entirety. This differs from Questioning on Discovery, in which counsel select excerpts from the transcript to “read-in” at trial.[5] These practical differences reflect the fact that the two modes of Questioning perform conceptually distinct functions in civil litigation.[6]

Principles for Questioning on Affidavit

After distinguishing the two modes of Questioning from each other, the Chief Justice then summarized the following key principles that apply to Questioning on Affidavit:

    • Questioning on Affidavit is cross-examination;
    • the scope of Questioning on Affidavit is “framed by the motion that the Affidavit is made in support of”;
    • when the motion itself is the entire law suit, such as in an Originating Notice, Questioning on Affidavit can “cover the whole lawsuit”;
    • Questioning on Affidavit may extend to matters deposed to that are irrelevant to the relief claimed; and
    • the principle of proportionality applies to Questioning on Affidavit, and undertakings ought be fulfilled if the provision of the information would not be “overly onerous” and would likely significantly help the Court determine the application.[7]

Significance

Alberta Power helps clarify how Questioning on Affidavit and Questioning on Discovery are conceptually and practically distinct. The Chief Justice also provides welcome guidance as to the scope of Questioning on Affidavit. For these reasons, Alberta Power will likely be a useful precedent for resolving objections made in Questioning on Affidavit.

Transport Canada’s Interim Order Formalizes Restrictions on Recreational Drone Operators

Transport Canada released an Interim Order Respecting the Use of Model Aircraft on March 13, 2017:

Click Here to Access the Order

This new Order is aimed at addressing public safety and aviation safety concerns centred on the recent explosion in use of recreational drones. A more comprehensive set of updated regulations are due later in the year.

The Order codifies several restrictions on recreational unmanned air vehicle (UAV or “drone”) operators. Prior to the issuance of the Order, similar restrictions were contained in Transport Canada guidelines.

The Order prohibits recreational drone operators from flying:

  1. At an altitude greater than 300 feet (90m) above ground level (AGL);
  2. At a lateral distance of less than 250 feet (75m) from “buildings, structures, vehicles, vessels, animals”, and individuals not associated with the operation of the drone;
  3. Within 9km of the centre of an aerodrome;
  4. Within controlled airspace;
  5. Within restricted airspace;
  6. Within 9 km of a forest fire;
  7. Over or near police, or EMS emergency operations;
  8. Over an open-air assembly of persons;
  9. At night; or
  10. In cloud.

The Order also prohibits an operator to operate more than one drone at a time and specifies that drone operators must give way to manned aircraft at all times.

The Order specifies that a drone operator must operate the drone within a Visual Line-of-Sight at all times, and at a lateral distance of no more than 500m from the operator.

The Order also specifies that the contact information of the owner of the drone (including name, address, and telephone number) must be clearly marked on the drone prior to operation. This policy is less stringent than the American FAA’s registration system which came into effect in late 2015, wherein recreational users must register their drone with the FAA online and affix the registration number to their drone.

There continues to be no formal registry for recreational drone operators in Canada, nor is there a formal knowledge testing or licencing requirement.

Recreational users face fines of $3,000 ($15,000 for a corporation) for failure to comply with the provisions outlined in the new Order.

Under the Order, recreational drones continue to be classified as “model aircraft” and are exempt from compliance with Canadian Aviation Regulations (CARs) 602.41. Note that the Order only applies to drones which meet the definition of “model aircraft” (under 35kg and operated for recreational purposes).

Drones not meeting the classification of “model aircraft”, or drones being used for commercial purposes continue to require a Special Flight Operation Certificate (SFOC) unless qualified for an exemption. Exemptions are currently granted to commercial UAVs under 25kg, and with a maximum calibrated airspeed of 87 kts or less provided the operator complies with the criteria set out in the Exemption:

Click Here to Access the Exemption

Breaking News: Employment Contracts Continue to be Important

A couple employment law truisms:

  1. An employer has the right to dismiss an employee without cause, so long as notice or compensation in lieu of notice is provided to the employee.
  2. An employee is entitled to all compensation due to her during the notice period unless the employment contract stipulates otherwise.

These employment law fundamentals were recently reaffirmed by the Alberta Court of Appeal in Styles v Alberta Investment Management Corporation, 2017 ABCA 1, rev’g 2015 ABQB 621.

The employee in Styles was hired as an Investment Manager by Alberta Investment Management Corporation (“AIMCo”) in June 2010. His compensation package included a substantial salary as well as bonuses and Long Term Incentive Plan (LTIP) grants. The LTIP grants were awarded annually but were only payable to the employee after a period of four years. To receive the payout, employees were required to sign a Participation Agreement and remain actively employed by AIMCo.

Throughout the LTIP documents as well as the Participation Agreement, there were numerous provisions plainly and clearly disentitling the employee from any LTIP grants that were awarded but had not vested at the time of termination of employment or during the notice period following termination.

Styles’ employment was terminated without cause in June 2013. AIMCo paid out severance but did not pay out the LTIP grants since they had not vested at the time of termination of his employment as per the contract. No bad faith was alleged by the employee.

Despite the plain wording of the LTIP documents and Participation Agreement, the trial judge found that the employee was entitled to all of the LTIP grants he was awarded, a value of approximately $444,000. The trial judge found that AIMCo breached its duty to exercise its “contractual discretionary powers” reasonably by dismissing the employee and, at the same time, failing to take into account the employee’s “legitimate contractual interests” in deciding not to pay him the value of his LTIP grants. By terminating Mr. Styles’ employment, the employer unfairly took away his ability to satisfy the condition precedent for receiving payment of the LTIP grants, i.e. they prevented him from continuing to be an active employee (paras 128 and 134).

The trial judge’s decision in effect eroded an employer’s right to terminate an employee’s employment without cause and, at the same time, entitled an employee to compensation clearly not provided for by the contract. We expect that employers throughout Alberta collectively shuddered when this decision was issued.

In January 2017, the Alberta Court of Appeal reversed the trial judge’s decision. It reaffirmed that termination without cause is not a breach of contract and that an explanation is not required to terminate an employee’s employment without cause (para 41). Upon dismissal without cause, employees are entitled to notice or payment in lieu of notice and the employment contract can be structured to disentitle an employee to certain compensation they would otherwise receive if they had continued active employment. An employee’s contractual interests, legitimate or otherwise, which are not provided for by the contract have no bearing on the employee’s entitlement to compensation.

The case is noteworthy not because it forges new legal ground, but rather because it reaffirms foundational principles of employment law. After the recognition by the Supreme Court of Canada of the duty of good faith in contractual performance (Bhasin v Hrynew, 2014 SCC 71), there was uncertainty as to what shape that duty would take. The lower court in Styles is an example of how that duty, if left unchecked, could become the launch pad for all sorts of previously unrecognized obligations for employers.

Just as the Alberta Court of Appeal reaffirmed historical principles, the lessons for employees and employers also harken back to traditional ground. This case is a reminder for both employers and employees to read their employment contracts carefully. A court will rightly look to the employment contract to determine the employee’s entitlement. Stating that “an employee must be an active employee” or that “the benefit terminates upon termination of employment” is likely not sufficient to disentitle an employee from grants or other benefits that may vest after the termination date but within the employee’s notice period. Clearly setting out what an employee is entitled to during the notice period assists the employer by avoiding costly litigation and assists the employee in knowing what risks they might face if they are dismissed without cause.

Contractual Interpretation Attracts Deference: Heritage Capital Corp v Equitable Trust Co, 2016 SCC 19

The Supreme Court of Canada recently confirmed that considerable deference is due to trial judges in the context of contractual interpretation.

This case centres on the Lougheed Building, a downtown landmark familiar to many Calgarians. In 2004, it was designated a “Municipal Historic Resource” under the Historical Resources Act, R.S.A. 2000, c. H-9 (“HRA”). The owner at the time agreed to refurbish the building in exchange for 15 annual incentive payments from the City of Calgary. The agreement was registered by caveat on title to the land pursuant to the HRA. The building was subsequently sold in a judicial sale.

A dispute arose between the present owner of the building and a creditor of the former owner regarding questions of both statutory and contractual interpretation, as follows:

  • whether the incentive payments constituted a positive covenant running with the land by virtue of the HRA;
  • whether they were sold in the judicial sale of the building; and
  • the present-day effect of a number of agreements assigning an interest in the incentive payments.

The Supreme Court agreed with the master in chambers that the incentive payments did not run with the land and were not sold as an asset in the judicial sale of the property.

In reaching this decision, the Supreme Court explicitly confirmed that its earlier statement on contractual interpretation in Creston Moly Corp v Sattva Capital Corp, 2014 SCC 53 [Sattva] applies to all appellate review, not just review of arbitral decisions. Sattva established that contractual interpretation involves a finding of mixed law and fact, and the proper standard of review on appeal is therefore one of palpable and overriding error. The only exception is when there is an “extricable question of law”, such as “the application of an incorrect principle, the failure to consider a required element of a legal test, or the failure to consider a relevant factor” – the standard is then correctness. The policy reasons behind this deferential standard reflect the recent emphasis on judicial efficiency seen in cases such as Hyrniak v Mauldin, 2014 SCC 7: “deference to fact-finders furthers the goals of limiting the number, length and cost of appeals, and of promoting the autonomy and integrity of trial proceedings.”

This case is also notable for the unanimous Court’s clear statement that statutory exceptions to common law rules should be narrowly construed. The Court found that the provisions of the HRA did not entirely displace the common law rule that positive covenants cannot run with land. In so finding, the Court stated that “the legislature is assumed not to have intended to change the common law unless it has done so clearly and unambiguously.”

Putting Your Best Foot Forward in Summary Judgment Applications

In P. Burns Resources Limited v. Honourable Patrick Burns Memorial Trust, 2015 ABCA 390, the Court of Appeal of Alberta confirmed that there is no “default position” that document production and questioning procedures should be put on hold pending an application for summary judgment or summary dismissal.

The Respondent trustee brought an action for oppression against the Appellants and sought document production. The Appellants then applied for summary dismissal of a part of the action, and the Respondent sought to cross-examine on the Appellants’ affidavit of records and to conduct questioning in accordance with Part 5 of the Alberta Rules of Court, AR 124/2010. The Master set aside the appointments for questioning and cross examination, and in so doing, stated that:

… one might as well remove the summary judgment provisions of the Rules of Court if a respondent is entitled, as of right, to insist on the usual production of documents and questioning (discoveries) prior to the hearing of a summary judgment application. [3]

Subsequently, the Respondent trustee issued appointments for questioning on the Appellants’ corporate representative related to the balance of the claim which was not part of the summary dismissal application. In response the Appellants expanded their application for summary judgment to the entire claim and refused to attend the appointments. The Respondents then sought an order compelling attendance before the same Master. Again, the Master declined to grant the order, stating that there should not be document production or discoveries when a summary judgment hearing is pending.

The Court of Queen’s Bench disagreed, and after hearing the appeal, overturned both of the Master’s orders. In overturning the Master, the chambers judge noted that the Master made:

… no inquiry into the nature of the action, or the nature of the application, but proceeded on the basis that, in the face of a summary dismissal application or an application for summary judgment, the rules related to questioning and document production should be put on hold. [5]

The Court explained that while parties are required to “put one’s best foot forward in summary applications”, and cannot oppose an application for summary dismissal by arguing that some evidence supporting its claim may arise through discovery or document production, there are instances where “the Defendants have all of the knowledge and all of the documents related to the Plaintiff’s claim [and] the situation cries out for an analysis of what disclosure is necessary or reasonable before the summary judgment application goes ahead”.

The Court of Appeal upheld the decision of the Queen’s Bench judge, and noted that the decision to allow document production and questioning prior to summary judgment applications is discretionary. In all circumstances, the discretion to allow discovery must be in compliance with the purpose of Part 5 of the Rules, and in particular, Rule 5.1(1), which discourages “conduct that unnecessarily or improperly delays proceedings or unnecessarily increases their costs”. In situations where a great deal of the supporting evidence is in the possession of the opposing party, then it is more likely that an applicant will require disclosure of documents and discoveries to be able to put their best foot forward in a summary judgment application.

Feuding Neighbours: Facebook Defamation

A defendant’s liability for posting defamatory content on social media forms the subject of a number of recent court decisions, and encompasses potential vicarious liability for responding comments or replies posted by others.

In the recent case of Pritchard v. Van Nes, 2016 BCSC 686, the Supreme Court of British Columbia awarded the Plaintiff, a teacher, significant damages against his next door neighbour for posting defamatory comments on the Facebook social media network.

The parties’ acrimonious relationship began in 2011, when the Defendant installed a fish pond along the property line. In June 2014, the Defendant made several Facebook postings about the Plaintiff, accusing him of setting up a 24-hour surveillance system to monitor her backyard and children. The postings could be viewed by all Facebook users, including her 2,000 Facebook “friends”. Her remarks, along with her friends’ replies, implied that that the Plaintiff was a pedophile.

One of the Defendant’s friends forwarded the Defendant’s initial post to the principal of the school where the Plaintiff taught. This caused the Plaintiff to suffer serious professional and personal consequences.

The Defendant did not defend the action, and the Plaintiff obtained default judgment for damages and costs to be assessed.

The court found the Defendant liable for defamation. Her Facebook posts and subsequent replies to her friends’ comments, together and by innuendo, implied that the Plaintiff was a pedophile unfit to teach, and were therefore defamatory in nature. The postings were completely false, unjustified, and resulted in serious damage to the Plaintiff’s reputation. Though the Defendant deleted the posts from her own Facebook page after a day, the Defendant did not offer a retraction or apology, and did nothing to counteract the effect of her posts having “gone viral” through her friends.

The Defendant was found liable for her friends’ republication of her defamatory postings, as republication was the natural and probable result of her posts.

The Court also found the Defendant liable for her friends’ defamatory replies to her postings. It was apparent that her Facebook page was being constantly viewed but she did not actively monitor and control the comments. She failed to delete them within a reasonable time given the gravity of the remarks and the ease with which deletion could be accomplished – i.e. immediately.

The Defendant’s liability also accounted for the actions of her friend who sent the defamatory post to the Plaintiff’s school principal. Her friend had previously advised on Facebook that he would “let the world know” about the Plaintiff, and the Court found that the Defendant’s silence effectively served as authorization for republication. She failed to warn him to not take measures on his own.

The court found that the Defendant’s thoughtless and reckless actions effectively destroyed the Plaintiff’s reputation as a teacher. He was entitled to significant general ($50,000) and punitive ($15,000) damages.

While the outcome of each case is ultimately fact specific, Pritchard showcases the heightened responsibility borne by users of social media, whose comments may be widely circulated by others and prompt dialogue that is itself defamatory and likely to attract liability on the part of the author of a defamatory ‘thread’ or remark.   The result is, in effect, to impose a positive duty on the part of social media users – to exercise care in published statements but also to monitor and curtail the responding comments of others having access to online comments, including one’s so-called “friends” to whom defamatory posts may be accessible.

Pedestrian Liability

If a pedestrian is injured by a motor vehicle, one would assume that the driver will be held liable, right?

In fact, depending on the circumstances, a pedestrian may be found partially or even completely responsible for the accident. The Alberta Traffic Safety Act sets out the legal standard in this respect.

Pursuant to section 186 of the Act, the driver bears the onus to establish that the pedestrian’s injury did not entirely or solely arise through the driver’s negligence or improper conduct. As the Alberta Court of Queen’s Bench found in Yurchi v Johnston, 2006 ABQB 25, this section creates a rebuttable presumption of driver liability. The driver can rebut the presumption if the evidence demonstrates that the pedestrian contributed in a material way to the accident, and that the driver could not have avoided it by exercise of reasonable care.

In Murhula v Yetman, 2010 ABQB 655, the Alberta Court of Queen’s Bench held that a driver must anticipate reasonably apparent risks and exercise reasonable care in the circumstances. A pedestrian not following the rules of the road is not enough on its own to absolve the driver of this responsibility. However, the standard is not one of perfection.

There are several examples in Alberta case law where a pedestrian has been held partially or fully responsible for an accident.

The accident in Yurchi occurred at an intersection during heavy rush hour traffic. The pedestrian was wearing dark clothing, and neither he nor the driver saw each other before impact. He was rushing across the street to catch a bus and walked into the side of the driver’s vehicle. The court found the driver 2/3 liable and the pedestrian 1/3 liable. The pedestrian was in an unmarked crosswalk at the time of the collision, and the driver was preoccupied by navigating around a bus. He did not pay adequate attention to the potential of a pedestrian crossing. The pedestrian, by walking quickly in dark conditions without adequate attention to his surroundings, materially contributed to the accident.

Murhula involved a pedestrian who hit the side of a vehicle after alighting from a bus and rushing across the middle of a street without looking. The collision took place at night, and the passenger was wearing dark clothing. The court dismissed the action, finding that the driver discharged the onus under the Act. She was driving with care, it was impossible for her to see the pedestrian, and there was nothing she could have done to prevent the collision. Even if she had seen the pedestrian and stopped, he still would have struck her vehicle. Had the pedestrian looked for oncoming traffic before rushing across the street, he would have seen the driver.

The pedestrian in Bouchard (Estate of) v Chalifoux, 2004 ABQB 877, tried to run across a busy highway without looking. He was hit by the driver at high speed, sadly killing him. The court found that due to the volume and speed of the traffic, it was a vital responsibility for the pedestrian to carefully assess the traffic flow before crossing. The driver exercised reasonable care in the circumstances. When he saw the pedestrian’s car parked on the shoulder, he slowed down but did not see the pedestrian until the last possible moment. Consequently, the Court concluded that the driver was not even partially responsible for the accident.

Judgment links

Yurchi v. Johnston
Murhula v Yetman:
Bouchard (Estate of) v Chalifoux

Contesting a Will: Grounds & Onus of Proof

Testamentary incapacity and undue influence are common grounds to contest the will of a deceased testator. The former refers to the testator’s lack of the necessary mental ability to execute the will, while the latter describes the influence of another person in making the will such that it does not genuinely reflect the testator’s own wishes.

The Supreme Court of Canada decision of Vout v. Hay, [1995] 2 S.C.R. 876, remains a leading case in this regard.

With respect to testamentary capacity, Vout stands for the principle that if the will was signed with the requisite formalities (by a testator who appeared to understand it) it will generally be presumed that she knew and approved of the will’s contents and had the necessary testamentary capacity.

This presumption is rebuttable if it can be shown on a balance of probabilities that there were “suspicious circumstances” leading to execution of the will. These include circumstances surrounding the preparation of the will (e.g. a beneficiary was in the room when the testator signed the will), circumstances that question the capacity of the testator (e.g. she left her property to a stranger rather than family), and circumstances suggesting that the free will of the testator was overborne by acts of coercion or fraud.

If suspicious circumstances are established, the onus reverses to the proponents of the will to prove testamentary capacity. This can be accomplished through evidence such as medical records (e.g. capacity assessment reports from medical professionals that examined the deceased around the time the will was signed) and statements from the deceased’s family, friends and neighbours that the testator was of sound mind.

The onus is always on those attacking the will to prove undue influence. Though the standard remains the balance of probabilities, recent case law in Alberta indicates that the evidentiary standard is rising. Suspicion and speculation is not enough; direct evidence is required. An example of such evidence is a statement from a witness that he saw someone threaten the deceased financially or physically to change her will.

Being Paid to Stay Home: Constructive Dismissal or a Dream Come True?

Although many employees may not always appreciate the drudgery of their daily grind, work is more than merely getting paid. Canadian courts have long recognized that work is “an essential component of [an employee’s] sense of identity, self-worth and emotional well-being”.[1] So, while an administrative suspension with pay may seem like a dream come true to many people, in some circumstances it may lead to termination of the employment relationship whether intended or not.

In a recent Supreme Court of Canada decision, Potter v New Brunswick Legal Aid Society, 2015 SCC 10, Wagner J. reviewed an employer’s obligations in the context of an administrative suspension with pay, which, if breached, may give rise to a claim for constructive dismissal by the employee.

Mr. Potter was appointed Executive Director of the New Brunswick Legal Aid Society by the Lieutenant-Governor in Council for a 7-year term. The Board of Directors had broad authority to supervise Mr. Potter’s employment and, after 4 years and several issues concerning his performance had arisen, the Board and Mr. Potter entered into negotiations for the Board to buyout Mr. Potter’s remaining employment contract.The second feature is the Keyboard Shortcuts, as you know in every Windows operating Software they have their set of keyboard shortcuts

Some months later, Mr. Potter took sick leave from work and while on leave he received a letter from the Board indicating that he was suspended with pay indefinitely. No reasons for his suspension were provided. On that same day and unbeknownst to him, the board sent a letter to the Lieutenant-Governor in Council requesting that Mr. Potter’s appointment be terminated. Eight weeks later, Mr. Potter started an action for constructive dismissal. The board responded by asserting that Mr. Potter resigned and terminated his salary and benefits.

The trial judge found that Mr. Potter was not constructively dismissed as he did not know about the board’s move to terminate his employment and the board had not done anything that “could be construed by a reasonable person as a repudiation of the contract”.[2] The New Brunswick Court of Appeal also found that an indefinite suspension with full pay, given the surrounding circumstances, did not constitute constructive dismissal.[3]

The SCC disagreed. Wagner J. for the majority noted that while employers have the implicit power to suspend employees with pay for administrative reasons, that power is limited to instances where it is reasonable and justified to do so.[4] Whether such a suspension is reasonable and justified depends upon “the duration of the suspension, whether the suspension is with pay, and good faith on the employer’s part, including the demonstration of legitimate business reasons”.[5]

Legitimate business reasons for a suspension are to be grounded in the reasons actually provided to the employee: it is not an ad hoc exercise to justify the suspension.[6] Failure to provide reasons will typically constitute a breach of the employer’s duty of good faith.[7] Since Mr. Potter was not provided any reasons for the suspension and it was of indefinite duration, the suspension did not meet the standard of being reasonable and justified.

On this basis, Wagner J. found it unlikely that “a reasonable employee would not have felt that [the employer’s] unreasonable and unjustified acts evinced an intention no longer to be bound by the contract”.[8] As a result, Mr. Potter was found to have been constructively dismissed, and was awarded the balance of his salary and benefits owing under the fixed-term employment contract.

In sum, to avoid the liability for constructive dismissal, an employer who administratively suspends an employee with pay must act in good faith, provide a legitimate business reason to that employee, and minimize the duration of the suspension. For an employee, these conditions will help ensure that time off with pay is closer to a dream come true and less of a blow to their self-worth or emotional well-being.

A Duty to Defend: Interpreting ambiguous insurance policies

Case: Tien Lung Taekwon-Do Club v Lloyd’s Underwriters, 2015 ABCA 46

If the language of an insurance policy is ambiguous, and general rules of contract construction do not aid in its interpretation, the Court must interpret the policy against the insurer.

In the above case, the respondents owned a taekwon-do club. While participating in a match, an individual was injured and filed a statement of claim against the club, alleging it should be held vicariously liable.

The insurer refused to defend the claim on the basis of an exclusion clause. The clause read that the policy does not apply to: Any Bodily Injury caused or contributed by any Insured to any participant and/or any Bodily Injury caused or contributed by any participant in a match or practice in regards to Category 4 Sports unless specified in the Declarations.

The chambers judge ruled that the clause did not apply as the declarations page overrode the exclusions, and reasonably contemplated that matches and practices were to be covered under the policy. The insurer was obliged to defend the action.

The issue on appeal was whether the language of the exclusion clause vitiated the insurer’s duty to defend.

The standard of review to interpret a contract is reasonableness. The Court of Appeal reviewed the exclusion clause and found that it did not appear to be standard form language. Interpretation of the clause required deference per Sattva Capital Corp., however the Court found that the chambers judge had correctly stated and applied the relevant legal principles and correctly interpreted the policy.

The Court stated that if language of the policy is ambiguous, it must be interpreted according to general rules of contract construction (reasonable expectation of parties, avoiding unrealistic results, ensuring similar policies are construed consistently). Failing that, the policy must be interpreted according to the longstanding doctrine of contra proferentem – meaning, against the insurer as the stronger bargaining party and author of the policy in issue.

In the result, the respondents were only required to show that there was an alternative reasonable interpretation of the policy, supported by the text and the parties’ reasonable expectations. The Court upheld the chambers judge’s ruling and affirmed that the insurer was obliged to defend.

Batter Up: Judicial Replacement of a Labour Arbitrator’s Award

Telus Communications Inc. v. Telecommunications Workers Union, 2014 ABCA 199, is a recent Alberta Court of Appeal decision addressing the just cause termination of an employee, the amount of deference that a reviewing court must give to a labour arbitration decision, and the issue of when a reviewing court may replace a labour arbitrator’s award.

In the case, the Alberta Court of Appeal dismissed an appeal from a Queen’s Bench decision (2013 ABQB 355) quashing a labour arbitration award and resulting remedy.

The decision concerned a Telus employee who asked for a day off to play in a slo-pitch tournament. His request was denied due to staffing concerns. Shortly before his shift began on the requested day, he informed his manager via text message that he could not attend work due to unforeseen circumstances. The manager went to the ball park later that morning and found the employee pitching.

At a subsequent investigative meeting, the employee initially said that he was ill. When questioned further, he admitted to being at the ball park, but stated that he was able to manage his symptoms there (which he could not have done at a customer’s home). He asserted that he was at the park to watch, not play. He later said that he was only pitching, not batting.

Telus ultimately terminated the employee. The Union grieved the termination.

The arbitrator found that the employee’s account of his illness and his explanation of being able to manage his illness at the ball park was plausible, and that Telus had no evidence that he was not sick. Though the employee’s lies about playing ball were misguided and demonstrative of bad judgment, he was remorseful, and his lies did not have significant impact. The arbitrator did not see sufficient reason to conclude that the trust between Telus and the employee could not be re-established if he were reinstated, so the arbitrator substituted a one-month suspension for the termination.

On judicial review, Justice J.T. McCarthy quashed the arbitrator’s conclusion and upheld the employee’s termination.

Writing for the majority, Justices O’Ferrall and Veldhuis of the Court of Appeal recognized that, generally, a reviewing court must afford deference to an arbitration award under a collective agreement and review it on a standard of reasonableness. If the court determines that the arbitrator’s decision was unreasonable, the matter must in theory be sent back for a re-hearing. However, the court has discretion to not do so where the facts lead to only one reasonable result.

The majority agreed with the reviewing justice that it was unreasonable for the arbitrator to require Telus to prove that the employee was sick. The arbitrator erred in not considering all available evidence and by not conducting a thorough assessment of the employee’s credibility. Further, the arbitrator’s finding that the employee’s conduct did not have significant impact was not supported by the evidence, given that the employee himself acknowledged that his trust relationship with Telus had been broken and that his actions negatively impacted customer service. Reinstatement was an unreasonable remedy, as it failed to consider relevant factors such as Telus’ evidence that its trust relationship with the employee was irreparably damaged. Termination was the only reasonable outcome.

Consequently, the majority concluded that the reviewing justice was correct in overturning the arbitrator’s decision and upholding the employee’s termination.

Look who’s talking: Collaboration in the authorship of expert reports

The Ontario Court of Appeal has reaffirmed the propriety of effective consultation between counsel and expert witnesses.

In Moore v Getahun, 2015 ONCA 55, the plaintiff was injured in a motorcycle accident. Prior to surgery, his wrist was placed in a cast which resulted in the plaintiff suffering from compartment syndrome. At trial, the central issue was whether applying a full cast to the plaintiff’s wrist was below the standard of care, and whether the cast caused the compartment syndrome.

Experts were retained to provide medical reports on the above issues. During cross-examination, one expert testified that he produced and discussed his draft and final report with counsel who provided advice on the report. The trial judge criticised these actions and stated that these discussions breached an expert’s duty of impartiality. The judge found that it was improper for counsel to assist an expert witness in preparation of the expert’s report. This view was challenged on appeal.

The Ontario Court of Appeal concluded that the trial judge erred in ruling that it is unacceptable for counsel to review and discuss draft expert reports, although this did not affect the overall decision of the court.

At paragraph 49, the Court of Appeal discussed Ontario Rules of Civil Procedure Rule 53.03, stating that it is:

“Widely accepted that consultation between counsel and expert witnesses in the preparation of Rule 53.03 reports, within certain limits, is necessary to ensure the efficient and orderly presentation of expert evidence and the timely, affordable and just resolution of claims.”

Further, Rule 4.1.01(1) specifically states that an expert witness has a duty to “provide opinion evidence that is fair, objective, and non-partisan.” This evidence should be seen as the independent product of an uninfluenced party which provides independent and unbiased assistance to the court.
In Moore, the changes made by the expert at the direction of counsel were relatively minor, and were aimed at improving clarity of the report. The Court stated that banning discussions between counsel and expert witnesses or mandating that all communication be documented is contrary to well-established precedent. These discussions may be necessary in highly technical areas of the law when an expert requires an increased level of instruction and consultation. Proper communication is vital to the expert being able to communicate effectively to the court.

There are a number of factors that foster an expert witness’ independence, including: professional standards forbidding counsel from engaging in practices that may interfere with this objectivity, ethical standards requiring members of professional bodies to be impartial when giving expert evidence, and the tool of cross-examination during the trial process.

Finally, at para 65, the Court stated:

“Leaving the expert witness entirely to his or her own devices, or requiring all changes to be documented in a formalized written exchange, would result in increased delay and cost in a regime already struggling to deliver justice in a timely and efficient manner. Such a rule would encourage the hiring of “shadow experts” to advise counsel. There would be an incentive to jettison rather than edit and improve badly drafted reports, causing added cost and delay. “

Just as judges require the assistance of expert witnesses, these expert witnesses require the assistance of lawyers to frame their evidence in a comprehensive and responsive manner. As such, these discussions are to be permitted.

“Like or Unlike” – Facebook, better than a police line-up?

In R v Mohamed, 2014 ABCA 398, photographs obtained from Facebook were shown to an eye witness in attempts to identify the shooter in a crime. At the time of the crime, the eye witness did not know the accused. However, after providing a description to a friend, the witness was presented with photographs obtained from Facebook showing a group of men fitting a similar description.  The eye witness identified the accused as being present in two of those photographs.

The trial judge awarded this method of identification significant weight, as it “demonstrate[d] the consciously serious and spontaneous nature of the identification from a group of men, all similar in description with similar features”. Further, the trial judge observed this process had similar characteristics to that of a police lineup.

The Court of Appeal ruled that although the process was similar to a police lineup, it arose spontaneously and was more akin to a real life identification. It compared the situation to that where an eye witness did not know the accused at the time of the crime, but later identifies the accused on the street after having their attention drawn to him.

While the friends who provided the photographs did not recall the same amount of descriptive detail provided by the eye witness relating to the individual’s appearance, the substance of their descriptions was largely consistent with the eye witness’ description and original recollection provided to the police. The Court stated that absolute uniformity and consistency in every detail provided by witnesses is highly unlikely and unnecessary.

It is the role of the trial judge to assess and determine the degree of reliability of presented evidence. The description provided by the eye witness was consistent with the appearance of the accused in the photo. As such, there was no palpable or overriding error by the trial judge in accepting the Facebook identification as evidence.

Honesty the Best Policy

It may have been news to some people that parties to a contract could cheat and mislead with impunity so long as they performed their contractual obligations. The Supreme Court of Canada now says otherwise in Bhasin v Hrynew, 2014 SCC 71 – importing minimum standards of honesty and good faith to the common law of contract.

Mr. Bhasin’s agency sold investment instruments exclusively for Canadian American Financial Corp (Can‑Am). Their business relationship was governed by a contract with a 3 year term that automatically renewed unless 6 months’ written notice was given stating the contrary. They enjoyed 10 years of business together.

Enter Mr. Hrynew. Mr. Hrynew was Mr. Bhasin’s competitor and sought to merge his agency with Mr. Bhasin’s, first by approaching Mr. Bhasin and then by pressuring Can‑Am to force a merger. During the same period, the Alberta Securities Commission had compliance concerns with agencies selling Can‑Am’s investment instruments and required Can‑Am to appoint someone to oversee compliance. Mr. Hrynew was appointed and sought to review Mr. Bhasin’s confidential business records. Mr. Bhasin refused.

Can‑Am responded by:

  1. lying to Mr. Bhasin about Mr. Hrynew being bound to a confidentiality agreement – no such agreement was in place;
  2. lying to Mr. Bhasin about the Alberta Securities Commission rejecting a proposal to have an outside person to oversee the compliance of agencies; and
  3. equivocally answering Mr. Bhasin’s question as to whether a merger of his and Mr. Hrynew’s agencies was a done deal.

When Mr. Bhasin continued to refuse Mr. Hrynew access to his confidential business records, Can‑Am gave notice not to renew its contract with Mr. Bhasin. As a result, Mr. Bhasin lost the value of his business and his employees joined Mr. Hrynew’s agency.

While Mr. Bhasin was clearly wronged by Can‑Am, it had not breached the terms of their agreement, potentially foreclosing a remedy for Mr. Bhasin.

This prompted the Supreme Court’s review of the doctrine of good faith in the law of contract – typically reserved for established classes of contracts (franchise and insurance contracts, for example).

The Court took two “incremental steps” to find in Mr. Bhasin’s favour and to end the “piecemeal” approach to importing a duty of good faith in contractual performance. The first step was to find that good faith contractual performance is a general organizing principle of the law of contract. Within the rubric of good faith the Court then established a new duty of honest performance applicable to all contracts.

Can‑Am failed to meet that minimum standard when it lied to Mr. Bhasin about Mr. Hrynew’s appointment. The Court found Can‑Am to have breached the agreement and awarded Mr. Bhasin the lost value of his business had Can‑Am fulfilled its duty.

Somewhat unusually, these incremental developments made the front page of the national news (Globe and Mail, November 14, 2014). Why does a commercial case verifying contractual principles garner such attention?

First, businesses will have to be more mindful in how and what they communicate to contracting parties. While there may be no express duty to disclose information affecting one party’s performance, equivocally answering direct questions affecting performance may constitute a breach of contract (Bhasin, paras 86 and 100). Savvy parties will seek to inform themselves knowing they are entitled to an honest answer.

Second, the organizing principle of good faith contractual performance provides fertile ground for new duties of contractual performance. Claims of good faith are no longer limited to discrete situations and relationships. Litigators will certainly test the principle’s fecundity in all manner of contexts. Justice Cromwell forestalls some potential proliferation of new duties when he states:

The application of the organizing principle of good faith to particular situations should be developed where the existing law is found to be wanting and where the development may occur incrementally in a way that is consistent with the structure of the common law of contract and gives due weight to the importance of private ordering and certainty in commercial affairs (para 66).

Specific new duties of good faith contractual performance may not spring up overnight without warning. However, cautious parties may think twice in making representations affecting performance, in a way that does not take unfair advantage of their contractual partners. Enterprising lawyers will be on the lookout.

And, finally, the decision is newsworthy because most non‑lawyers are incredulous to learn that honest performance is in fact something new. Most would agree that honesty is, or should be, expected from every party to a contract.

Fairness Over Form In Billing For Legal Services

The Alberta Court of Queen’s Bench recently emphasized the public importance of judicial oversight in billing for legal services – in essence, a form of consumer protection regulation—in Stubbard v Hajduk Gibbs LLP, 2014 ABQB 632.

In Alberta, billing for legal services is subject to the Alberta Law Society’s Code of Conduct and the Alberta Rules of Court. Section 206(1) of the Code provides that a lawyer’s charges must be fair and reasonable. Rule 10.2(1) states that, except to the extent a retainer agreement otherwise provides, a lawyer is entitled to be paid a reasonable amount. Rule 10.5 allows a lawyer and client to agree to billing at a different rate than would be determined under Rule 10.2, again subject to reasonableness. Rule 10.7 outlines requirements specific to a contingency agreement, which include that it must be in writing, be signed by the client (in the presence of a witness) and lawyer, contain certain particulars, and be served on the client.

In other words, notwithstanding parties’ right to contract, the court has inherent jurisdiction to review agreements and billing for legal services for reasonableness The regulation of contingency agreements is particularly pointed.

Stubbard involved the review of lawyers’ charges in a divorce action. In 2005 the client and her counsel entered into a retainer agreement for billing on a flat fee or hourly basis. In 2010, the firm discovered that it did not have a signed copy of the agreement and took steps to formalize and change it – by lowering the hourly fee and adding a contingency component by which the firm would be entitled to 35% of the matrimonial property and spousal support awards if the matter required a trial or settled within 12 days of trial (the firm had estimated the client’s matrimonial property claim as between $900K to $2.4M).

The parties then executed the 2005 agreement, adding a footnote stating that the document replaced the 2005 agreement and was effective retroactive to 2005, and attaching a second document by which the client agreed to enter into the revised terms of retainer. The formalized 2010 agreement, however, was never executed.

The client applied to a review officer for a taxation of accounts. She had been billed $71,000 cumulatively, was still married, and the issue of matrimonial property had yet to be resolved. The review officer sought a reference from the Court of Queen’s Bench.

Counsel for the law firm argued that contracts for legal services are enforceable in accordance with their terms regardless of criteria for assessment under the Rules, relying on Steinke v Hajduk Gibbs LLP, 2014 ABQB 34 and Samson Cree Nation v O’ Reilly & Associés, 2014 ABCA 268.

The Court distinguished the Steinke and Samson decisions and discussed legal fees, legal fee contracts, and public policy at some length (paras. 19‑26). The Court noted that the basis for taxation rules is the uneven bargaining position between lawyer and client, and insisted on this basis that — even where there is an agreement to contract out of the Rules, and even if the Rules permit such an agreement — there must still be oversight, and it is the overarching duty of the Court to view work performed through the filter of reasonableness.

While the Court concluded that it could and would distinguish Steinke and Samson, it was not necessary to do so because neither the 2005 nor the 2010 agreement took effect – the 2005 agreement having been replaced in its entirety, while the 2010 agreement failed to meet the Rules’ requirements for contingent fee agreements. On this basis, the Court directed the review officer to ignore both the 2005 and 2010 agreements and to tax the client`s account based on the criteria in Rule 613 of the former Rules of Court (in force at the time of the lawyer’s appointment).

Ultimately, the Court rejected any notion that contractual terms in a retainer agreement oust the Court’s inherent jurisdiction to review accounts for fairness in the context of assessment Rules, or what it considered is “clearly consumer protection regulation” (paras. 21‑24).

Heed The Colon

In Canadian Natural Resources Limited v. ShawCor Ltd., 2014 ABCA 289, the Alberta Court of Appeal has again revisited a party’s obligation to sufficiently describe privileged documents in its affidavit of records in civil litigation proceedings.

While perhaps evident to most civil litigators, the use of a colon following individual grounds of privilege included in Schedule 2 of the standard form of affidavit of records (Form 26) is deliberate, intended to introduce a list of specific documents meeting a particular ground of privilege as a result of which otherwise producible documents have not been disclosed. Grounds of privilege in the standard form include:

  1. without prejudice communications:
  2. communications and copies of communications between solicitor and client:
  3. solicitors work product, including all interoffice memoranda, correspondence, notes, memoranda and other records prepared by the solicitors or their assistants:
  4. records made or created for the dominant purpose of litigation, existing or anticipated:
  5. other: (provide particulars of objection relied upon)
  6. records that fall into 2 or more of the categories described above:

The colon is a punctuation mark used to explain or start an enumeration, to be contrasted with its cousin the semicolon which separates independent clauses in a sentence or items in a list. The grounds of privilege in Schedule 2 of the affidavit of records are not a list in and of themselves; rather, they are intended to introduce an enumerated list of producible but privileged records in the possession or control of a party to a civil action.

The common practice of treating grounds enumerated in Schedule 2 as a comprehensive list of otherwise unidentified documents – often with an all‑inclusive reference to counsel’s complete file – is no longer adequate, if it ever was. This practice fails to meet the requirements to disclose all relevant and material records in accordance with Rule 5.6 of the Alberta Rules of Court.

Privileged records must “provide sufficient description of a record claimed to be privileged to assist other parties in assessing the validity of that claim”.

Relevant and material documents are prima facie producible. So, yes, you do have to identify with some specificity any relevant and material but otherwise privileged records in possession of a party. Identifying information, including names or other specific information protected by the privilege need not be disclosed.

Interestingly, there will be very few instances where the entire contents of a solicitor’s file will be relevant and material as to be producible in any event. A record, question or information is relevant within the meaning of the Rules (R. 5.2) when it could reasonably be expected “to significantly help determine one or more of the issues raised in the pleadings, or to ascertain evidence that could reasonably be expected to significantly help determine one or more of the issues raised in the pleading”.

Most of the records or information included in the typical solicitor’s file will not meet this description. For example, as much as I would like my opinion of law provided to a client to determine the issues in the action, regretfully that opinion in fact has no bearing on a court’s determination of the issues as to be producible absent some material admission of a relevant fact in the document.

The same can be said for many of the items described in Schedule 2 of Form 26, including without prejudice communications, solicitor’s work product and the like. Again, unless facts relevant to the case are admitted in the document, settlement communications, inter-office memoranda or records prepared by legal assistants will rarely be relevant and material as to be producible.

More commonly, it is subparagraph (d) that will apply in most cases, requiring a party to identify records “made or created for the dominant purpose of litigation”, usually in the form of factual recitations from a client to her or his counsel or the fruits of expert investigation.

The Alberta Court of Appeal’s treatment of these issues in CNRL v. ShawCor Ltd. is not new law, but a reminder of a party’s obligations of disclosure and the fallacy of relying on precedents or standard forms in lieu of independently assessing the purpose and function of a legal document.

You Think You Have Issues…

Appellate courts often raise issues and pose questions to parties before or during oral argument. While these interjections can rattle seasoned litigators and may pose strategic problems, the Supreme Court of Canada in R v. Mian, 2014 SCC 54 affirmed that an appellate court has jurisdiction to raise any issue that does not suggest bias.

But there is a limit to an appellate court’s discretion. If an issue raised by the court was neither raised by the parties nor grounded in any issue raised by the parties and provides a new basis for reviewing the decision under appeal, then it is a new issue.

So, there are ‘new issues’ and there are ‘not new issues’. Appellate courts are free to raise not new issues while new issues should rarely be raised. How can we distinguish a not new issue from a new issue?

The distinction between not new and new issues can be seen in the two issues raised by the Alberta Court of Appeal in R v Mian:

1) What is a question of law on an appeal from an acquittal?

2) What are the limits of cross-examination and consequences of exceeding the limits?

The Alberta Court of Appeal granted the appeal in Mian on the basis of the second issue, that the trial judge erred in relying on an impermissible cross-examination.

The Supreme Court of Canada ruled that the first question was not a new issue because as a question of jurisdiction it simply goes to the “backdrop of litigation” (paras 34 and 61). As such, the appeal court was free to raise the issue.

In contrast, the second question was a new issue because it provided a new basis to review the decision, it was not raised by the parties nor grounded in any of the issues raised by the parties.

As a new issue, the Alberta Court of Appeal should have only raised it if the court had good reason to believe that failure to raise the issue would risk an injustice. The Supreme Court of Canada found that an injustice was not at risk because the trial judge’s decision did not rely on the impugned cross-examination. And, even if the testimony was relied upon, it would not made a material difference. And finally, the cross-examination was not objected to at the time (paras 64 – 66). Since the issue would not have changed the result, the court should not have raised the issue in the first place.

Complicating matters of course is that the Alberta Court of Appeal must have thought it had a good reason to believe that there was a risk to injustice since they overturned the trial judge’s decision on that very basis.

The upshot is that if an appeal court raises an issue that is a bona fide new issue then the appeal court must have “good reason” to believe that failure to raise the issue would risk an injustice. Short of that, the court should not exercise its discretion. Lastly, whether or not the court in fact had “good reason” is itself reviewable.

Search and Seizure

A regulator’s right to search your property and to seize items without a warrant arises from the dozens of provincial and federal statutes as well as municipal bylaws that regulate everything from environmental protection to real estate.

Inspectors may have the right to enter onto your land, inspect and copy documents, seize equipment and require you to cooperate. The specific search and seizure powers an inspector may have depend upon the regulator’s empowering legislation. As a result, to know your rights and obligations you must look at the legislation.

To assist you in knowing your rights and obligations, we have compiled the statutory provisions that authorize Alberta’s provincial regulators to search and to seize property. These summaries are intended to provide a rough guide and do not substitute legal guidance. For more information, please contact Christian Popowich, Chad Babiuk or Ravi Jadusingh of Code Hunter LLP.

Legislative Summaries

An inspector has arrived, now what?

A regulatory inspector arrives at your door to ask your employees questions and to take samples. Do you shut the door or provide full disclosure? Will you be charged if you fail to assist?

Your rights and responsibilities as well as what the inspector has the power to do when they visit depend upon which Act applies to the inspection or investigation. If you do not know, ask the inspector.

*You should always contact legal counsel immediately.

Agricultural Operation Practices Act

As an agricultural operator, you may be subject to a regulatory inspection or investigation. An inspection is conducted to ensure compliance with the regulations. An investigation seeks to prosecute a suspected regulatory violation.

Phone legal counsel immediately if you are being investigated.

When the inspector arrives, ask the purpose of the inspector’s visit and do not volunteer more information than you are required to give.

  • What the inspector may do
    • Access any premise believed to be used in connection with agricultural operations except a private dwelling (1)
    • Run equipment that is used to manage manure (2)
    • Take samples (3)
    • Conduct tests or take measurements (4)
    • Inspect and make copies of any record OR remove the record to make copies (5)
    • Record or copy information (6)
    • Take photographs or record audio-video (7)
    • Make reasonable inquiries of any person, orally or in writing (8)
  • What you must do
    • You have a duty not to resist, obstruct or delay the inspection (9)
  • You may be given an enforcement or emergency order. An enforcement order may
    • Require you to create a plan that will bring your operation into compliance (10)
    • Require you to stop any act (11)
    • Require you to investigate, construct, alter or repair (12)
    • Suspend an approval, registration or authorization (13)
    • Specify actions you must take to be in compliance (14)

* If you fail to comply with the inspection you may be fined up to $10,000. (15)
1. 30(1), 2. 30(2)(a) 3. 30(2)(b), 4. 30(2)(c), 5. 30(2)(d), 6. 30(2)(e), 7. 30(2)(f), 8. 30(2)(g), 9. 30(3), 10. 39(1)(b), 11. 39(1)(c), 12. 39(1)(d), 13. 39(1)(e), 14. 39(1)(f), 15. 34

Agricultural Pests Act

As an owner or occupant of any land in Alberta, inspectors may inspect your land for a pest or nuisance. An inspection is conducted to ensure compliance with the regulations. An investigation seeks to prosecute a suspected regulatory violation.

Phone legal counsel immediately if you are being investigated.

When the inspector arrives, ask the purpose of the inspector’s visit and do not volunteer more information than you are required to give.

  • What the inspector may do
    • At any reasonable hour access any land except a private dwelling. (1) A private dwelling can be accessed only with a warrant. (2)
    • Direct you to control or confine livestock (3)
    • Take specimens of the pest or anything suspected of containing pest (4)
  • What you must do
    • You must not obstruct the inspector (5)
  • You may be required to
    • Cease any contravention (6)
    • Stop the operation of a plant or equipment (7)

* If you fail to comply with the inspection you may be fined up to $5,000. (8)
1. 17(2)(a), 2. 18(1), 3. 17(2)(b), 4. 17(2)(c), 5. 22(a), 6. 20(2)(a), 7. 20(2)(b), 8. 23

Alberta Corporate Tax Act

When the inspector arrives, ask the purpose of the inspector’s visit and do not volunteer more information than you are required to give.

Phone legal counsel immediately if you are being investigated

  • What the inspector may do
    • Inspect, audit or examine the books and records (1)
    • Examine property in an inventory of a corporation and any other person relating to the matter (2)
    • Enter any premise other than a dwelling-place. (3) A private dwelling can be accessed only with a warrant. (4)
    • Use force if authorized in the warrant, and if accompanied by a peace officer (5)
    • Require the owner or manager to attend the premises (6)
  • What you must do
    • Give reasonable assistance and make reasonable efforts to answer all proper questions (7)
    • You must not hinder or interfere the inspector (8)

*If you fail to comply with the inspection you may be fined between $1,000 and $25,000 or to imprisonment for up to 12 months, or to both. (9)

1. 63(1)(a), 2. 63(1)(c), 3. 63(2)(a), 4. 63(3), 5. (63)(5), 6. 63(1)(e), 7. 63(1)(e), 8. 68, 9. 76(1)(3)

Alberta Utilities Commission Act

When the Market Surveillance Administrator arrives, ask the purpose of the Administrator’s visit and do not volunteer more information than you are required to give.

Phone legal counsel immediately if you are being investigated

  • What the Market Surveillance Administrator may do
    • Enter and inspect the premises of an electricity market participant or a natural gas market participant (1)
    • Make reasonable inquiries of an employee (2)
    • Request the production of relevant records (3)
    • Temporarily remove (4) and make copies (5) of records that are or may be relevant
    • Request access to operate or have any computer system be operated (6)
  • What the Market Surveillance Administrator must do
    • Carry out any activity at a reasonable time (7)
    • Carry identification and present it upon request (8)
  • What you must do
    • Cooperate with the Market Surveillance Administrator (9)

*A person who is guilty of an offence under this section is liable to a fine not exceeding $3,000,000 for each day the offence continues.

1. 46(1)(a), 2. 46(1)(b), 3. 46(1)(c), 4. 46(1)(d), 5. (46(1)(e), 6. 46(1)(f), 7. 46(1)(2), 8. 46(1)(6), 9. 46(1)(4)

Animal Health Act

If you are transporting animals or animal products or keeping them on your premise within Alberta, inspectors may conduct an inspection. An inspection is conducted to ensure compliance with the regulations. An investigation seeks to prosecute a suspected regulatory violation.

Phone legal counsel immediately if you are being investigated

When the inspector arrives, ask the purpose of the inspector’s visit and do not volunteer more information than you are required to give.

  • What the inspector may do
    • At any reasonable time access any land except a private dwelling (1)
    • Examine vehicles (2)
    • Take samples (3) and require tests (4)
    • Require you to disinfect vehicles (5)
    • Inspect animals or animal products (6)
    • Take photographs (7)
  • What the inspector cannot do
    • Enter into a private dwelling without consent from the owner or occupant, (8) or until the inspector obtains an order from a judge (9)
  • What you must do
    • Answer all questions concerning the animals (10)
    • Produce documents and records pertaining to the animals (11)
    • Provide assistance to the inspector (12)
    • You have a duty not to provide false or misleading information (13)

*If you interfere or hinder the inspection you may be fined up to $15,000. (14)

1. 38(1)(a), 2. 37(2)(b), 3. 37(2)(c), 4. 38(2)(c), 5. 37(2)(f)(ii), 6. 38(1)(b), 7. 38(2)(d), 8. 38(3)(a), 9. 38(3)(b), 10. 37(2)(d) and 38(2)(b), 11. 37(2)(e) and 38(2)(a), 12. 38(2)(e), 13. 42(2), 14. 68(1)(a)

Alberta Housing Act

When the inspector arrives, ask the purpose of the inspector’s visit and do not volunteer more information than you are required to give.

Phone legal counsel immediately if you are being investigated

  • What the inspector may do
    • Inspect the financial or administrative condition of a management body, (1) or any related matter (2)
    • Require the presence of any member of the board, officer or employee (3)
  • What you must do
    • Produce all books, records and documents if required to do so (4)

1. 9(1)(a), 2. 9(1)(b), 3. 9(3)(a), 4. 9(4)

Animal Protection Act

If you are keeping animals on your premises for the purpose of selling exhibiting them, a peace officer may inspect the premises. An inspection is conducted to ensure compliance with the regulations. An investigation seeks to prosecute a suspected regulatory violation.

Phone legal counsel immediately if you are being investigated.

When the peace officer arrives, ask the purpose of the officer’s visit and do not volunteer more information than you are required to give.

  • What the peace officer may do
    • Enter into any premise where animals are kept during ordinary business hours (1)
    • Inspect any vehicle used to transport animals (2)
  • What you must do
    • You have a duty to not obstruct or hinder the peace officer (3)

* If you interfere or hinder the inspection you may be fined up to $20,000. (4)

1. 10(1)(a), 2. 10(1)(b), 3. 11, 4. 12(1)

Apprenticeship and Industry Training Act

If you are training people for a trade or occupation, an officer may inspect the premises. An inspection is conducted to ensure compliance with the regulations. An investigation seeks to prosecute a suspected regulatory violation.

Phone legal counsel immediately if you are being investigated

When the officer arrives, ask the purpose of the officer’s visit and do not volunteer more information than you are required to give.

  • What the inspector may do
    • Access any premise where work is carried out (1)
    • Access a private residence only with the permission of an adult resident (2)
    • Inspect the premise (3) and any documents relating to the work (4)
    • Make copies of documents or take photographs (5)
    • Make inquiries (6)
  • What you must do
    • You have a duty to not impede the investigation (7)
    • Give access to the premise if the inspector has an order (you may be required to pay costs for the application) (8)

*If you interfere or hinder the inspection you may be fined up to $15,000. (9)

1. 50(1), 2. 50(3), 3. 50(2)(a)(i), 4. 50(2)(a)(ii), 5. 50(2)(b), 6. 50(2)(c), 7. 51(1), 62. 51(2) and 51(6), 8. 54(1)

Bee Act

If you are an apiculturist, your premise may be inspected. An inspection is conducted to ensure compliance with the regulations. An investigation seeks to prosecute a suspected regulatory violation.

Phone legal counsel immediately if you are being investigated

When the officer arrives, ask the purpose of the officer’s visit and do not volunteer more information than you are required to give.

  • What the inspector may do
    • At any reasonable hour access any land except a private dwelling (1)
    • Inspect bees and equipment (2)
    • Demand the production of documents (3)
    • Examine and make copies of any documents that relate to the bees (64)
    • Remove bees to test for disease or for presence of Africanized bee (5)
  • What you must do
    • You have a duty to not resist or obstruct an inspector (6)
    • Upon demand, provide a complete list of the legal descriptions of land where the bee colonies occupy (7)

*If you interfere or hinder the inspection you may be fined up to $2,500. (8)

1. 3(1), 2. 3(1)(a), 3. 4(1), 4. 3(1)(a), 5. 3(1)(c), 6. 14(c), 7. 6(2), 8. 14

Charitable Fund-Raising Act

If you operate a charitable organization or fund-raising business, your premise may be inspected. An inspection is conducted to ensure compliance with the regulations. An investigation seeks to prosecute a suspected regulatory violation.

Phone legal counsel immediately if you are being investigated

When the officer arrives, ask the purpose of the officer’s visit and do not volunteer more information than you are required to give.

  • What the inspector may do
    • Enter and inspect the premises if notice has been given and is performed at a reasonable time (1)
    • Inspect and remove to make copies any document or record pertaining to the Act (2)
  • What you must do
    • You have a duty not to make false statements or misrepresent any fact (3)

*If you make a false statement you may be fined up to $100,000. (4)

1. 39(1) and 39(2)(a), 2. 39(4), 3. 48, 4. 55(2)(a)

Child and Family Services Authorities Act

When the inspector arrives, ask the purpose of the inspector’s visit and do not volunteer more information than you are required to give.

Phone legal counsel immediately if you are being investigated

  • What the inspector may do
    • Enter any place of an Authority or a service provider (1)
    • Examine records and documents, and temporarily remove them to make copies (2)
    • Inspect and take samples of any food, medication or equipment (3)
  • What the inspector must do
    • Provide a receipt when removing documents, records, material, food, medication or equipment (4)
    • Return the items when they have served the purposes for which they were taken (5)
  • What you must do
    • You must not prevent, hinder or obstruct the inspector (6)

1. 16(2)(a), 2. 16(2)(b), 3. 16(2)(c), 4. 16(4)(a), 5. 16(4)(c), 6. 16(5)

Child Care Licensing Act

If you operate a child care facility, your premise may be inspected. An inspection is conducted to ensure compliance with the regulations. An investigation seeks to prosecute a suspected regulatory violation.

Phone legal counsel immediately if you are being investigated

When the inspector arrives, ask the purpose of the inspector’s visit and do not volunteer more information than you are required to give.

  • What the inspector may do
    • Enter and inspect the premises at any reasonable hour (1)
    • Require the production of documents (2)
  • What you must do
    • You have a duty not to obstruct the inspection (3)

*If you interfere, hinder or obstruct the inspection you may be fined up to $10,000 or to imprisonment of up to 12 months, or to both. (4)

1. 10(1)(a), 2. 10(1)(b), 3. 26(b), 4. 26(b)

Climate Change and Emissions Management Act

As an owner or operator of a facility that emits specified gas, inspectors may inspect your premise. An inspection is conducted to ensure compliance with the regulations. An investigation seeks to prosecute a suspected regulatory violation.

Phone legal counsel immediately if you are being investigated

When the inspector arrives, ask the purpose of the inspector’s visit and do not volunteer more information than you are required to give

  • What the inspector may do
    • • At any reasonable time, access any place which is believed to have released specified gas into the environment or is likely to contain documents related to a release (1)
    • Access a private dwelling with the occupant’s consent (2) or with either an order or a search warrant (3)
    • Use any machine (4), search any computer (5)
    • Take samples (6), conduct tests (7)
    • Make copies of any document related to a release (8), copy any information (9) and take audio-video recordings (10)
    • Make inquiries either in writing or orally (11)
    • Exclude anyone, except counsel, from questioning (12)
  • What you must do
    • You must provide all reasonable assistance (13) and furnish all information (14)
    • You must not interfere with the inspection (15)
    • You must not provide false information (16)

If you fail to comply with the inspection you may be fined up to $100,000 or to 2 years imprisonment (17). The corporation may be fined up to $1,000,000. (18)

1. 13(1), 2. 14(a), 3. 14(b), 4. 13(2)(b), 5. 13(2)(f), 6. 13(2)(c), 7. 13(2)(d), 8. 13(2)(e), 9. 13(2)(g), 10. 13(2)(k), 11. 13(2)(l), 12. 13(4), 13. 23(a), 14. 23(b), 15. 26, 16. 44(a), 17. 45(1)(a), 18. 45(1)(b)

Cooperatives Act

If you own or operate a cooperative, your premise may be inspected. An inspection is conducted to ensure compliance with the regulations. An investigation seeks to prosecute a suspected regulatory violation.

Phone legal counsel immediately if you are being investigated

When the inspector arrives, ask the purpose of the inspector’s visit and do not volunteer more information than you are required to give.

  • What the inspector may do
    • Enter the business premises at any reasonable time (1) or any other premise believed to hold books, documents or records of the cooperative (2)
    • Make oral or written inquiries (3)
    • Require you to produce documents (4) or any other information (5)
    • Remove documents for the purpose of copying or inspection (6)
  • The inspector may apply for an order, which may:
    • Allow the inspector to enter the business premises or a private dwelling and examine the books, records or documents (7)
    • Authorize the inspector to copy or remove the books, records or documents (8)
    • Require a cooperative or an employee to co-operate with the inspection (9)

*If you fail to comply with the inspection you may be fined up to $5000 or to imprisonment of up to 6 months, or to both. (10)

1. 282(1), 2. 282(2), 3. 282(3)(a), 4. 282(3)(b), 5. 282(3)(c), 6. 282(4), 7. 283(1)(a), 8. 283(1)(b), 9. 283(1)(c), 10. 361(2)

Dairy Industry Act

If you are a dairy producer or processor, your premise may be inspected. An inspection is conducted to ensure compliance with the regulations. An investigation seeks to prosecute a suspected regulatory violation.

Phone legal counsel immediately if you are being investigated

When the officer arrives, ask the purpose of the officer’s visit and do not volunteer more information than you are required to give.

  • What the inspector may do
    • At any reasonable time access any vehicle or premise that is used in connection with dairy products, except a private dwelling (1)
    • Inspect, review, take samples and photograph (2)
    • Require you to perform tests (3)
    • Demand the production of any document or record pertaining to the Act (4)
  • What you must do
    • Provide assistance and make full disclosure (5)

*If you interfere, hinder or obstruct the inspection you may be fined up to $25,000. (6)

1. 8(1) and 8(1.1), 2. 8(2)(a), 3. 8(2)(d), 4. 8(2)(e), 5. 8(2)(b), 6. 35(1)

Dangerous Goods Transportation and Handling Act

When the inspector arrives, ask the purpose of the inspector’s visit and do not volunteer more information than you are required to give.

Phone legal counsel immediately if you are being investigated

  • What the inspector may do
    • At any reasonable time, stop, enter and inspect any means of transport (1)
    • Enter and inspect any facility (2)
    • Open and inspect any means of containment (3)
    • Take a reasonable quantity of anything believed to be dangerous goods (4)
    • Examine and make copies of any information believed to be relevant (5)
    • Detain dangerous goods (6) or the means of containment (7)
  • What the inspector must do
    • Show certificate of designation if requested to do so (8)
    • Obtain consent of the occupant or authority of a warrant before entering a private dwelling (9)
    • Provide a certificate as proof of opening any thing for inspection (10)
  • What you must do
    • You must comply with any reasonable request (11)
    • You must not knowingly make a false or misleading statement (12)
    • You must not remove, alter or interfere with anything detained (13)
    • You must not hinder or obstruct the inspector (14)

*If you fail to comply with the inspection you may be fined up to $50,000 or to imprisonment of up to 2 years, or both. (15)

1. 7(1), 2. 7(1), 3. 7(1)(b), 4. 7(1)(c), 5. 7(1)(d), 6. 9(1), 7. 9(2), 8. 7(2), 9. 8(1), 10. 10(1), 11. 11(a), 12. 11(b), 13. 11(c), 14. 11(d), 15. 30(1)(a)

Drug Program Act

When the officer arrives, ask the purpose of the officer’s visit and do not volunteer more information than you are required to give.

Phone legal counsel immediately if you are being investigated

  • What the inspector may do
    • At any reasonable hour enter the place of inspection (1)
    • Examine any record and temporarily remove it to make copies (2)
    • Require any person to answer any relevant question (3)
  • What you must do
    • You must co-operate with the inspector (4)

*If you contravene or fail to comply with the inspection you may be fined up to $50,000. (5)

1. 20(5)(a), 2. 20(5)(b), 3. 20(5)(c), 4. 20(9), 5. 23(g)

Emergency Health Services Act

When the officer arrives, ask the purpose of the officer’s visit and do not volunteer more information than you are required to give.

Phone legal counsel immediately if you are being investigated

  • What the inspector may do
    • At any reasonable hour enter the place of inspection or investigation (1) except for a private dwelling (2)
    • Examine any record and temporarily remove it to make copies (3)
    • Inspect and temporarily remove any vehicle, equipment or other thing that is found at the place (4)
    • Take samples, (5) perform tests, take photographs or make recordings of any substance or thing, or the place (6)
    • Require any person to answer any relevant question (7)
  • What you must do
    • You must co-operate with the inspection (8)

*If you fail to comply with these regulations you may be fined up to $10,000, or up to $100,000 in the case of a corporation. (9)

1. 27(a), 2. 26, 3. 27(b), 4. 27(c), 5. 27(d), 6. 27(e), 7. 27(f), 8. 31, 9. 39(1)(a) and 39(1)(b)

Employment Pension Plans Act

When the inspector arrives, ask the purpose of the inspector’s visit and do not volunteer more information than you are required to give.

Phone legal counsel immediately if you are being investigated

  • What the inspector may do
    • At any reasonable time inspect the records (1) and any relevant information (2) by written notice (3)
    • Require an authorized person or a representative to submit to an oral interview (4)
    • Enter a dwelling place with the consent of an occupant or a warrant (5)
    • Make copies and extracts from the records, upon giving a receipt for them (6)
  • What the inspector must do
    • Return the records within a reasonable period of time (7)
  • What you must do
    • You must not prevent or obstruct the inspector (8)
    • You must not destroy, alter, mutilate, secrete or dispose of the records (9)
    • You must not make a false or misleading statement (10) or entry in any record (11)
    • You must not omit to state any material fact (12)

*If you fail to comply with the regulations you may be charged up to $100,000. (13)
*If you make a false or misleading statement you may be charged up to $15,000. (14)

1. 90(2)(a), 2. 90(2)(b)(ii), 3. 90(2)(b), 4. 90(2)(c), 5. 90(3), 6. 90(6), 7. 90(7), 8. 90(8), 9. 92(1)(b)(i), 10. 92(1)(b)(ii), 11. 92(1)(b)(iii), 12. 92(1)(b)(iv), 13. 92(1), 14. 92(2)

Employment Standards Code

If you are an employer, your premises may be inspected. An inspection is conducted to ensure compliance with the regulations. An investigation seeks to prosecute a suspected regulatory violation.

Phone legal counsel immediately if you are being investigated

When the inspector arrives, ask the purpose of the inspector’s visit and do not volunteer more information than you are required to give

  • What the inspector may do
    • Enter any place at any reasonable time (1)
    • Require you to provide oral or written statements (2)
    • Question an employee while not in the presence of the employer (3)
    • Require information to be given under oath (4)
    • By written notice, require the production of documents, (5) require the employer to record the times their employees start and end work, (6) and require the employer to post notices or bulletins for employees (7)
  • What you must do
    • You have a duty not to delay or obstruct the inspection (8)

*If you fail to cooperate, you may be fined up to $50,000. (9) The corporation may be fined up to $100,000. (10)

1. 77(1)(a), 2. 77(1)(b), 3. 77(1)(d), 4. 77(1)(e), 5. 77(1)(f), 6. 77(1)(h), 7. 77(1)(i), 8. 126(b), 9. 132(1)(b), 10. 132(1)(a)

Environmental Protection and Enhancement Act

An investigator has broad powers to inspect any place at any reasonable time. An inspection is conducted to ensure compliance with the regulations. An investigation seeks to prosecute a suspected regulatory violation.

Phone legal counsel immediately if you are being investigated

When the inspector arrives, ask the purpose of the inspector’s visit and do not volunteer more information than you are required to give.

  • What the inspector may do
    • Access any place at any reasonable time without a warrant (1)
    • A private dwelling can be accessed only with permission or by court order (2)
    • Run any machine or use any equipment on the premise (3)
    • Take samples, (4) conduct tests, (5) record information,(6) copy documents, (7) use any computer system (8) and take photographs (9)
    • Make reasonable inquiries (10)
  • What you must do
    • You must provide all reasonable assistance (11) and information that is reasonably required (12)
    • You have a duty not to provide false or misleading information (13)

*If you fail to provide information or if you provide misleading information you may be fined up to $100,000. (14)

1. 198(1), 2. 199, 3. 198(5)(a) and 198(5)(b), 4. 198(5)(c), 5. 198(5)(d), 6. 198(5)(g), 7. 198(5)(e), 8. 198(5)(f), 9. 198(5)(k), 10. 198(5)(l), 11. 209(a), 12. 209(b), 13. 227(a), 14. 228(1)(a)

Fair Trading Act

If you supply goods or services in Alberta, inspectors may inspect your premises. An inspection is conducted to ensure compliance with the regulations. An investigation seeks to prosecute a suspected regulatory violation.

Phone legal counsel immediately if you are being investigated

When the inspector arrives, ask the purpose of the inspector’s visit and do not volunteer more information than you are required to give.

  • What an inspector may do
    • Access business premises during reasonable hours (1) or premises which are reasonably believed to contain documents or records (2)
    • Request oral or written replies to questions from people who are working at the premise (3) or for that person to provide any other information (4)
    • Require the production of documents (5)
  • What you must do
    • Licensees and people working at the premises must cooperate with the inspection (6)

* If you do not comply with the inspection you may be fined up to $100,000 (7) or 3 times the amount that was gained by committing the offence, whichever is greater, (8) or to imprisonment for up to 2 years.

1. 145(1), 2. 145(2), 3. 145(3)(a), 4. 145(3)(c), 5. 145(3)(b), 6. 145(6), 7. 164(1)(a), 8. 164(1)(b)

Farm Implement Act

When the inspector arrives, ask the purpose of the inspector’s visit and do not volunteer more information than you are required to give.

Phone legal counsel immediately if you are being investigated

  • What the inspector may do
    • Inspect the stock of repair parts (1)
    • Resolve any dispute between the purchaser and a dealer (2)
    • Request any documents and books in order to make copies of them (3)
  • What you must do
    • Give the inspector free access to the premises during usual business hours (4)
    • Produce the documents and books when requested to do so (5)

*If you fail to comply with the inspection you may be fined up to $50,000. (6)

1. 15, 2. 20(1), 3. 20(2), 4. 15, 5. 20(2), 6. 32(1)

Fisheries (Alberta) Act

Fishery Officers have broad powers and may inspect your premise, vehicle, boat or aircraft. An inspection is conducted to ensure compliance with the regulations. An investigation seeks to prosecute a suspected regulatory violation.

Phone legal counsel immediately if you are being investigated

When the inspector arrives, ask the purpose of the inspector’s visit and do not volunteer more information than you are required to give.

  • What the inspector may do
    • Search any premise (except a private dwelling), vehicle, boat or aircraft without a warrant (1)
    • Open any container (2)
    • Examine any fish or thing and take samples (3)
    • Take measurements and conduct tests (4)
    • Require you to produce all fish and fishing equipment for inspection (5)
    • Require you to produce your license (6)
    • Upon reasonable notice, produce records or documents to the fishery officer (7)
  • What you must do
    • You have a duty to not hinder, obstruct or impede an inspection (8)
    • You have a duty to not give false information (9)
    • Give all reasonable assistance to the fishery officer (10)
    • Provide all information reasonably required (11)

*If you fail to comply with the inspection you may be fined up to $100,000 or imprisonment of up to one year. (12)

1. 27(1)(b), 2. 26(2)(a), 3. 26(2)(b), 4. 26(2)(c), 5. 27(2) and 27(3), 66. 23(1),7207. 30(1) and 31(1), 8. 34(1), 9. 34(2), 10. 36(3)(a), 11. 36(3)(b), 12. 35(1)

Forest and Prairie Protection Act

As an owner or occupant of any land in Alberta, inspectors may inspect your land. An inspection is conducted to ensure compliance with the regulations. An investigation seeks to prosecute a suspected regulatory violation.

Phone legal counsel immediately if you are being investigated

When the inspector arrives, ask the purpose of the inspector’s visit and do not volunteer more information than you are required to give.

  • What the inspector may do
    • At any reasonable hour access any land except a private dwelling (1)
    • Require you to produce any documents (2) or to answer any reasonable inquiry (3)
    • Require you to run machinery (4)
    • Take samples (5), photographs or video(6)
    • Conduct tests (7) or record information (8)
  • What you must do
    • Comply with any request directed to you (9)
    • Do not make a false statement (10)
  • You may be required to
    • Pay fire suppression costs (11)

* If you fail to comply with the inspection you may be fined up to $1,000. (12)

1. 31(1), 2. 31(1)(a), 3. 31.1(i), 4. 31.1(c), 5. 31.1(d), 6. 31.1(h), 7. 31.1(e), 8. 31.1(f), 9. 31.1(g), 9. 37, 10. 36, 11. 37(b)

Forests Act

When the inspector arrives, ask the purpose of the inspector’s visit and do not volunteer more information than you are required to give.

Phone legal counsel immediately if you are being investigated

  • What the inspector can do
    • Inspect, investigate or survey any land or any thing on land (1)
    • Require the production of any records (2)
    • Enter a private dwelling with the consent of the occupant (3) or under the authority of an order or a warrant (4)
    • At any time stop, enter and inspect any conveyance (5)
    • Seize any thing in plain view (6) and remove or detain it (7)
  • What the forest officer must do
    • Provide a reason and a receipt for seizing an object (8)
  • What you must do
    • Upon request, provide any information pertaining to the forest officer’s duties and to forest management (9)
    • You must not interfere with a forest officer (10) or a person accompanying a forest officer (11)

*If you fail to comply with the inspection you may be fined up to $100,000. (12) A corporation may be fined up to $1,000,000. (13)

1. 43(2)(a), 2. 43(2)(d), 3. 43(3)(a), 4. 43(3)(b), 5. 44(1), 6. 44.2(1), 7. 44.2(2), 8. 44.2(3), 9. 44(2), 10. 52(a), 11. 52(b), 12. 54(2)(a), 13. 54(2)(b)

Fuel Tax Act

When the inspector arrives, ask the purpose of the inspector’s visit and do not volunteer more information than you are required to give

Phone legal counsel immediately if you are being investigated

  • What the minister or officer can do
    • Enter on any land (1)
    • Enter a dwelling house with the consent of the occupant or under the authority of a warrant (2)
    • Make any inquiries of a person that are or may be relevant (3)
    • Require the provision of any records or property required to be kept under this Act (4)
    • Examine and take samples of any fuel on the premises (5)
    • Use any computer hardware or software to obtain readings (6)
    • Examine the records or property (7) and remove the records to make copies (8)
    • Stop a motor vehicle to examine and take samples of the fuel if it is believed to be marked (9)
    • Detain a motor vehicle transporting fuel in bulk (10)
  • What the minister or officer must do
    • Make copies with reasonable dispatch (11) and return the originals (12)
  • What you must do
    • Stop the motor vehicle when requested to do so (13)
    • Provide access to the fuel tank (14)
    • Allow samples to be taken from the fuel (15)
    • If you are transporting fuel in bulk you must provide the officer with written proof of:
      • The quantity and type of fuel (16)
      • The name and address of the person from whom the fuel was obtained (17)
      • The name and address of every person to whom the fuel was delivered or is to be delivered (17)
      • The intended use of the fuel (18)
    • Produce the records or property if served by written demand (19)
    • You must not hinder or interfere with the officer (20)

*If you fail to comply with the inspection you may be fined up to $1,000. (21)

1. 48, 239. 49(4), 2. 49(1)(b), 3. 49(1)(c), 4. 49(1)(d), 5. 49(1)(e), 6. 49(2)(a), 7. 49(2)(b), 8. 51(1), 9. 52(2), 10. 54(2)(a), 11. 54(2)(b), 12. 51(2)(a), 13. 51(2)(b), 14. 51(2)(c), 15. 52(1)(a), 16. 52(1)(b), 17. 52(1)(c), 18. 52(1)(d), 19. 53(2), 20. 55(1), 21. 61(2)(a)

Funeral Services Act

If you operate a funeral home, an inspector may inspect your premises. An inspection is conducted to ensure compliance with the regulations. An investigation seeks to prosecute a suspected regulatory violation.

Phone legal counsel immediately if you are being investigated

When the inspector arrives, ask the purpose of the inspector’s visit and do not volunteer more information than you are required to give.

  • What an inspector may do
    • Enter a regulated person’s premises (1)
    • Require you or your employee to provide answers either in writing or orally, (2) provide documents, records (3) or other information (4)
    • Inspect books, records and documents (5) and make copies of those items (6)
  • What you must do
    • You have a duty to cooperate (7)
    • Give the inspector all reasonable assistance (8)

*If you fail to comply with the inspection you may be fined between $500 and $100,000 (9) or 3 times the amount that was gained by committing the offence, whichever is greater, or to imprisonment for up to 2 years, or to both. (10)

1. 18.1(1), 2. 18.1(4)(a), 3. 18.1(4)(b), 4. 18.1(4)(c), 5. 18.1(6), 6. 18.1(7)(b), 7. 18.1(3), 8. 18.1(4)(d), 9. 31(1)(a), 10. 31(1)(b)

Gaming and Liquor Act

When the inspector arrives, ask the purpose of the inspector’s visit and do not volunteer more information than you are required to give.

Phone legal counsel immediately if you are being investigated

  • What the inspector may do
    • At any reasonable hour enter and inspect licensed and unlicensed premises and facilities (1)
    • Enter the offices of a common carrier doing business in Alberta (2)
    • Take samples of liquor (3)
    • Inspect, audit, examine and make copies of records, documents and books (4)
    • Interview the licensee or agents (5)
    • Interview any minor inside or outside of the premises who appears to have contravened this Act (6)
    • Interview and request identification from any intoxicated individual inside the licensed premises (7)
    • Seize any identification believed to be false (8)
    • Take samples of gaming supplies (9)
    • Seize the liquor and its container, as well as the gaming terminals or gaming supplies (10)
    • Work at the manufacturer to ensure compliance with this Act (11)
  • What you must do
    • You have a duty not to hinder, obstruct or impede an inspector (12)
    • Assist the inspector in carrying out an inspection (13)
    • Provide the inspector with records, documents, books of accounts and receipts (14)
  • You may be required to
    • Provide the inspector with office accommodation, facilities and equipment (with reasonable notice from the Commission) (15)

*An individual who is convicted of an offence for which no specific penalty has been provided is liable to a fine of not more than $10,000 or to imprisonment for not more than 6 months, or to both the fine and imprisonment. (16)

1. 103(1)(a) and 103(1)(b), 2. 103(1)(e), 3. 103(4)(a), 4. 103(4)(b), 5. 103(4)(c), 6. 103(4)(d), 7. 103(4)(e), 8. 103(4)(f), 9. 103(5)(a), 10. 106(1), 11. 105(1), 12. 99, 13. 104(a), 14. 104(b), 15. 105(2)(a), 16. 117(1)

Gas Distribution Act

When the inspector arrives, ask the purpose of the inspector’s visit and do not volunteer more information than you are required to give

Phone legal counsel immediately if you are being investigated

  • What the chief officer can do
    • Enter on any land or premises to inspect:
      • A rural gas utility
      • A low pressure distribution pipeline
      • A consumer service installation
      • The offices of a distributor (1)
    • Examine any records of a distributor in connection with the operation of a rural gas utility (2)
    • Order that unsafe practices be suspended or that the unsafe conditions be removed (3)
  • What you must do
    • Halt unsafe construction, operation, work or activity when ordered to do so(4)
  • If you fail to halt unsafe construction, operation, work or activities you may be given an order to:
    • Restrain from contravening (5)
    • Stop continuing the contravention (6)
    • Withdraw or stop an unsafe practice (7)
    • Remove any constructed or installed pipeline (8)
    • Make restitution to any other person for any damage resulting from the contravention (9)

*If you fail to comply with the inspection may you may be fined up to $5,000 and in default of payment, imprisonment for up to 3 months.(10)

1. 4(1)(a), 2. 4(1)(b), 3. 7(1), 4. 7(2), 5. 9(a), 6. 9(b), 7. 9(c), 8. 9(d), 9. 9(e), 10. 8

Health Disciplines Act

When the inspector arrives, ask the purpose of the inspector’s visit and do not volunteer more information than you are required to give

Phone legal counsel immediately if you are being investigated

This inspection is conducted in order to determine whether the regulations relating to the designated health discipline are being complied with. (1)

  • What the registrar may do
    • Inspect the practice of any registered member of the designated health discipline named in the order (2)
    • Enter and inspect the business premises during business hours (3)
    • Serve a notice in writing specifying:
      • The manner in which the regulations are not being complied with (4)
      • Remedial action to be taken (5)
      • The date by which the remedial action shall be completed (6)
    • Refer the matter to be dealt with as a complaint (7)
  • What the registrar must do
    • Provide minimum 48 hours notice before entering the premises (8)

*If you fail to comply with the inspection you may be fined up to $2000. (9)

1. 60(1), 2. 60(1), 3. 60(2), 4. 5(a)(i), 5. 5(a)(ii), 6. 5(a)(iii), 7. 60(5)(b), 8. 60(3)(a), 9. 64(1)(a)

Health Professions Act

If you provide health services, an inspector may inspect your premises. An inspection is conducted to ensure compliance with the regulations. An investigation seeks to prosecute a suspected regulatory violation.

Phone legal counsel immediately if you are being investigated

When the inspector arrives, ask the purpose of the inspector’s visit and do not volunteer more information than you are required to give.

  • What the inspector may do
    • Inspect any place where regulated health professional services are performed or documents are kept, (1) private dwellings (2) and public facilities exempted (3)
    • Require a person to answer under oath reasonably made inquiries (4) or give the inspector any document or thing (5)

1. 53.2(1)(d), 2. 53.2(6)(a), 3. 53.2(6)(b), 4. 53.2(1)(a)(i), 5. 53.2(1)(b)(ii)

Livestock and Livestock Products Act

When the inspector arrives, ask the purpose of the inspector’s visit and do not volunteer more information than you are required to give

Phone legal counsel immediately if you are being investigated

  • What the inspector may do
    • At any reasonable time enter and inspect any place, except a dwelling place (1)
    • Require any person in the place to be interviewed (2)
    • Temporarily remove and make copies of any books, records or other documents (3)
    • Search any vehicle transporting poultry or other products without a warrant (4)
    • Detain poultry or products at the owner’s expense (5)
  • What the inspector must do
    • Give a receipt upon removing anything (6) and return it to the person from whom it was taken (7)
  • What you must do
    • Stop the vehicle and remain stopped until permitted to leave (8)
    • Permit the vehicle and its contents to be inspected (9)
    • Produce any documentation and answer all questions regardingthe documentation (10)
    • Unload vehicle contents for inspection (11)
    • Do not remove detained poultry or products without the inspector’s consent (12)

*If you fail to comply with the inspection you may be fined up to $5,000. (322)

1. 2(a),2. 2(b), 3. 2(c), 4. 4, 5. 3(1), 6. 3(a), 7. 3(b), 8. 5(a), 9. 5(b), 10. 5(c), 11. 5(d), 12. 3(2), 13. 6

Livestock Identification and Commerce Act

If you possess livestock, an inspector may inspect your premises or vehicles. An inspection is conducted to ensure compliance with the regulations. An investigation seeks to prosecute a suspected regulatory violation.

Phone legal counsel immediately if you are being investigated

When the inspector arrives, ask the purpose of the inspector’s visit and do not volunteer more information than you are required to give.

  • What an inspector may do
    • At any reasonable hour access any land except a private dwelling (1)
    • Search any vehicle that is transporting livestock without warrant (2)
    • Require anyone to be interviewed (3)
    • Require the production of documentation (4)
  • What you must do
    • Permit the inspection, (5) provide proof of permit, (6) answer all questions (7) and transport livestock to unloading facilities for inspection (8)
    • Be able to satisfy the inspector that the person in possession of the livestock is the owner or otherwise legally entitled to be in possession (9)

*If you assault, obstruct or interfere with the inspection you may be fined $10,000 for the first offence (10) and $20,000 for the second or subsequent offence. (11)

1. 38(1)(a), 2. 40(1), 3. 38(1)(b), 4. 38(1)(c), 5. 40(2)(b), 6. 40(2)(d), 7. 40(2)(c), 8. 40(2)(e), 9. 24(2), 10. 78(a), 11. 78(b)

Livestock Industry Diversification Act

When the inspector arrives, ask the purpose of the inspector’s visit and do not volunteer more information than you are required to give

Phone legal counsel immediately if you are being investigated

  • What the Director or an inspector can do
    • Enter any premises other than a private dwelling without a warrant (1)
    • Inspect any vehicle believed to transport or have transported present or prospective domestic cervids (2)
  • What you must do
    • Give reasonable assistance, provide access to all relevant areas of the farm and provide all information, records and documents (3)
    • You must not hinder or obstruct the inspector (4)
    • You must not alter, destroy or remove any sign or notice erected for the purposes of this Act (5)
    • You must not wilfully give false information (6)

*If you fail to comply with the inspection you may be fined up to $2,500 or to imprisonment for up to a month, or both. (7)

1. 26(1)(a), 2. 26(1)(b), 3. 26(4), 4. 27, 5. 28, 6. 29, 7. 30(f)

Marketing of Agricultural Products Act

When the inspector arrives, ask the purpose of the inspector’s visit and do not volunteer more information than you are required to give

Phone legal counsel immediately if you are being investigated

  • What the inspector may do
    • Enter the business premises at regular hours(1)
    • Inspect the premises (2) and any record, object or thing related to the matter (3)
    • Remove (4) and make copies or take photographs of any record, object or thing (5)
    • Take any quantities of any lot of an agricultural product (6)
    • Determine and audit the source and use of agricultural products (7)
    • Make inquiries of any person (8)
    • Receive information under oath or by affidavit (9) and administer oaths (10)
  • What the inspector must do
    • Show the certificate of designation or appointment upon request (11)
  • What you must do
    • You must not hinder or obstruct the inspector (12)
    • You must produce documents when required to do so (13)

The inspector may give you an order. This order may require you to comply with the plan, regulation, order or direction. (14)

1. 44(1), 2. 44(1)(a)(i), 3. 44(1)(a)(ii), 4. 44(1)(b.1), 5. 44(1)(b), 6. 44(1)(b.2), 7. 44(1)(b.3), 8. 44(1)(c), 9. 44(1)(d), 10. 44(1)(e), 11. 44(2), 12. 44(3), 13. 44(3), 14. 45(1)

Meat Inspection Act

When the inspector arrives, ask the purpose of the inspector’s visit and do not volunteer more information than you are required to give

Phone legal counsel immediately if you are being investigated

  • What the Director or the inspector can do
    • At any reasonable hour, without warrant enter any meat facility, premises or building (1)
    • A private dwelling place may be accessed with a warrant (2) or consent of the occupant (3)
    • Inspect the meat facility, premises or building and inspect and copy any relevant records it contains (4)
  • What the Director or the inspector must do
    • Produce identification and explain the inspection powers and duties upon request (5)
  • What you must do
    • Upon request, produce records related to the matter (6)
    • You must not hinder or obstruct the Director or the inspector, or provide false information (7)

*If you fail to comply with the inspection you may be charged up to $10,000 or to imprisonment for up to a year, or both. (8)

1. 8(1), 2. 8(1)(a), 3. 8(2)(b), 4. 8(1), 5. 8(4), 6. 5(b), 7. 9(9), 8. 10

Metis Settlements Act

When the inspector arrives, ask the purpose of the inspector’s visit and do not volunteer more information than you are required to give

Phone legal counsel immediately if you are being investigated

  • What the inspector may do
    • At any reasonable time, enter any land, building or structure in the settlement area (1)
    • Inspect for a nuisance (2) or compliance with this Act (3)
    • Enter and inspect any dwelling place with the consent of an adult occupant (4) or with a warrant (5)
    • Examine and make copies of any relevant books, documents or records (6)
    • Take samples of any relevant substance or thing (7)
  • What the inspector must do
    • Give a receipt upon removing books, records or documents, (8) and promptly return the items (9)
  • What you must do
    • You must not hinder or obstruct the inspector (10)

*If you fail to comply with the inspection you may be fined up to $2,500. (11)

1. 65, 2. 65(a), 3. 65(b), 4. 65(1)(a), 5. 65(1)(b), 6. 67(1)(a), 7. 67(1)(b), 8. 67(2)(a), 9. 67(2)(b), 10. 243(1)(d), 11. 243(1)

Mines and Minerals Act

When the inspector arrives, ask the purpose of the inspector’s visit and do not volunteer more information than you are required to give

Phone legal counsel immediately if you are being investigated

  • What the inspector may do
  • The inspector may investigate any:
    • Well, battery, mine, quarry, installation, equipment or other facility in connection with the recovery of a mineral, or any plant or other facility used for the processing of a mineral (1)
    • Well, installation, equipment or other facility used in connection with the injection of a substance into a subsurface (2)
    • A mineral recovered pursuant to an agreement or any product obtained from such a mineral (3)
    • The Crown’s royalty share of a mineral or of any product obtained from a mineral (4)
  • Without limitation, conduct an inspection whether or not any mineral or product is or was commingled with any mineral recovered other than pursuant to an agreement or with any product obtained from such a mineral (5)
  • What you must do
  • Assist the inspector (6)
  • Supply any information and samples requested (7)
  • Provide access to any reports, plans, logs, designs, process control and engineering documents or other records (8)

*If you fail to comply with the inspection you may be fined up to $100,000. (9)

1. 52(1)(a), 2. 52(1)(b), 3. 52(1)(c), 4. 52(1)(d), 5. 52(2), 6. 52(3)(a), 7. 52(3)(b), 8. 52(3)(c), 9. 63(1.1)

Nursing Homes Act

If you are an operator of a nursing home, your premises may be inspected. An inspection is conducted to ensure compliance with the regulations. An investigation seeks to prosecute a suspected regulatory violation.

Phone legal counsel immediately if you are being investigated

When the inspector arrives, ask the purpose of the inspector’s visit and do not volunteer more information than you are required to give

  • What an inspector may do
    • Enter and inspect premises used as a nursing home at any reasonable time (1)
    • Require operator to provide information regarding operation (2)
    • Inspect and make copies of documents and records (3)
  • What you must do
    • You have a duty to grant access to the premises (4) and provide documents when requested (5)

*If you fail to comply with the inspection, you may be fined up to $5,000.

1. 12(1)(a), 2. 12(1)(b), 3. 12(3), 4. 12(5), 5. 12(5)

Occupational Health and Safety Act

If you are an employer, your premises may be inspected. An inspection is conducted to ensure compliance with the regulations. An investigation seeks to prosecute a suspected regulatory violation.

Phone legal counsel immediately if you are being investigated

When the inspector arrives, ask the purpose of the inspector’s visit and do not volunteer more information than you are required to give

  • What an inspector may do
    • Enter at any reasonable hour any worksite (1)
    • Require the production of documents, records or books (2)
    • Inspect and take samples of any material,product, tool or equipment (3)
    • Test and take photographs (4)
    • Interview and obtain statements from people on worksite (5)
  • What you must do
    • You must not give false information (6)

*If you give false information during an inspection you may be fined $1,000 or imprisoned for up to 6 months. (7)

1. 8(1)(a), 2. 8(1)(b), 3. 8(1)(c), 4. 8(1)(d), 5. 8(1)(e), 6. 41(3), 7. 41(3)

Oil and Gas Conservation Act

Inspections can be performed at all stages in the oil and gas industry, from extraction to delivery to the ultimate consumer. An inspection is conducted to ensure compliance with the regulations. An investigation seeks to prosecute a suspected regulatory violation.

Phone legal counsel immediately if you are being investigated

When the inspector arrives, ask the purpose of the inspector’s visit and do not volunteer more information than you are required to give

  • What an inspector may do
    • Enter onto any premise to inspect wells,equipment, plant or records (1)
    • Enter onto any premise where oil or gas is refined, handled, processed or treated (2) or any premise used for storage or disposal (3)
    • Inspect documents (4) and take samples (5)
  • What you must do
    • Assist anyone involved in the inspection (6)
    • You have a duty not to hinder, obstruct or interfere with the inspection (7)

*If you fail to comply with the inspection, you may be fined up to $500 and imprisoned up to 6 months. A non-compliant corporation may be fined up to $1,000. (8)

1. 96(1)(a), 2. 96(1)(b), 3. 96(1)(b.1), 4. 96(1)(c), 5. 96(1)(d), 6. 96(3), 7. 96(4), 8. 110(1)(b)

Peace Officer Act

Inspections can be performed of any employer of peace officers. An inspection is conducted to ensure compliance with the regulations. An investigation seeks to prosecute a suspected regulatory violation.

Phone legal counsel immediately if you are being investigated

When the inspector arrives, ask the purpose of the inspector’s visit and do not volunteer more information than you are required to give

  • What a Director may do
    • At a reasonable time, enter onto the employer’s premises and inspect records, vehicles, weapons and equipment (1)
    • May require you to provide oral or written replies to questions, (2) produce documents (3) or provide any other information (4)
    • May remove or copy documents (5)

1. 23(1), 2. 23(4)(a), 3. 23(4)(b), 4. 23(4)(c), 5. 23(5)

Pharmacy and Drug Act

As a pharmacy services provider, your premises may be inspected. An inspection is conducted to ensure compliance with the regulations. An investigation seeks to prosecute a suspected regulatory violation.

When the Field Officer arrives, ask the purpose of the Field Officer’s visit.

Phone legal counsel immediately if you are being investigated

  • What a Field Officer may do
    • At any reasonable time, enter into a licensed pharmacy to inspect the operation and records (1)
    • Require any person to answer relevant question and to answer under oath (2)
    • Demand production of documents (3)
    • Take samples, (4) remove or copy records (5) or take photographs (6)
  • What you must do
    • You have a duty to cooperate with the inspection (7)

1. 21(2), 2. 21(5)(a), 3. 21(5)(b), 4. 21(5)(c), 5. 21(5)(d), 6. 21(5)(e), 7. 21(8)

Private Vocational Training Act

If you operate a licensed vocational school, you may be subject to an inspection. An inspection is conducted to ensure compliance with the regulations. An investigation seeks to prosecute a suspected regulatory violation. When the inspector arrives, ask the purpose of the inspector’s visit.

Phone legal counsel immediately if you are being investigated

  • What an inspector may do
    • At any reasonable time after giving reasonable notice, enter any premise where vocational training is provided (1)
    • Require the production of records (2)
    • Perform tests, take photographs, make recordings or observe instructors (3)

1. 15(2)(a), 2. 15(2)(b), 3. 15(2)(c)

Public Health Act

If the health authority believes that there is a danger to public health on your property, it may be subject to an inspection. An inspection is conducted to ensure compliance with the regulations. An investigation seeks to prosecute a suspected regulatory violation. When the inspector arrives, ask the purpose of the inspector’s visit.

Phone legal counsel immediately if you are being investigated

  • What an inspector may do
    • With the consent of the owner (1) or by court order, (2) enter onto the premise at a reasonable hour to inspect it
    • Make reasonable written or oral inquiries or any person (3)
    • Take samples, (4) perform tests, and take photographs or recordings (5)
  • What you must do
    • You have a duty not to hinder or obstruct the inspection (6)

*If you hinder or obstruct the inspection, you may be fined up to $2,000. (7)

1. 60(a), 2. 61, 3. 60(b), 4. 60(c), 5. 60(d),6. 71, 7. 73(3)

Public Lands Act

If you own or occupy land in Alberta, you may be subject to an inspection. An inspection is conducted to ensure compliance with the regulations. An investigation seeks to prosecute a suspected regulatory violation. When the inspector arrives, ask the purpose of the inspector’s visit.

Phone legal counsel immediately if you are being investigated

  • What an inspector may do
    • At any time, enter onto any land or thing, (1) except a private dwelling (2)
    • Enter into a private dwelling only with the consent of the occupant, (3) or with a court order or warrant (4)
    • Require the production of records (5)
    • Require you to detain, (6) remove or cause to be removed a thing that is causing or might cause damage to the land or anything on the land (7)
  • What you must do
    • You have a duty not to interfere with the inspection (8)
    • You have a duty to give all reasonable assistance (9) and furnish all information reasonably required (10)

*If you interfere with the inspection, you may be fined up to $100,000. (11) A corporation may be fined up to $1,000,000. (12)

1. 69(2)(a), 2. 69(3), 3. 69(3)(a), 4. 66(3)(b), 5. 69(2)(g), 6. 69(2)(f)(i), 7. 69(2)(f)(ii), 8. 57(c), 9. 69.6(a), 10. 69.6(b), 11. 59(2)(a), 12. 59(2)(b)

Railway (Alberta) Act

Railways are subject to inspection. An inspection is conducted to ensure compliance with the regulations. An investigation seeks to prosecute a suspected regulatory violation. When the inspector arrives, ask the purpose of the inspector’s visit.

Phone legal counsel immediately if you are being investigated

  • What an inspector may do
    • Enter on or into any track, facility, rolling stock or building used in the operation of a railway (1)
    • Ride any rolling stock (2)
    • Make inquiries to employees (3) and test equipment (4)
    • Require the production of documents (5) and remove those documents for the purpose of copying (6)
    • Order the cessation of any activity, (7) issue directions regarding speed, (8) or remove equipment from service (9)
    • When safety is a concern, suspend any person (10) and issue directions regarding proper procedures (11)
  • What you must do
    • You have a duty not to hinder, molest or interfere with the inspection (12)

*If you fail to comply with the inspection, you may be liable for an administrative penalty of up to $10,000. (13)

1. 35(2)(a), 2. 35(2)(b), 3. 35(2)(c), 4. 35(2)(d), 5. 36(1), 6. 36(2), 7. 37(1)(a)(i), 8. 37(1)(c), 9. 37(1)(b), 10. 37(1)(e), 11. 37(1)(f), 12. 40(a), 13. 41(1)(c) and 41(2)(a)

Real Estate Act

If you trade in real estate, your business may be inspected. An inspection is conducted to ensure compliance with the regulations. An investigation seeks to prosecute a suspected regulatory violation. When the inspector arrives, ask the purpose of the inspector’s visit.

Phone legal counsel immediately if you are being investigated

  • What an inspector may do
    • Examine books, papers, documents, correspondence, communications, negotiations, transactions, investigations, loans, borrowings and payments (1)
    • Examine property and assets (2)
    • At reasonable times, demand production of books and documents (3) to examine and copy (4)
  • What you must do
    • Produce documents that are requested (5)

*If you fail to comply with the inspection, you may be fined up to $25,000. (6)

1. 74(1)(a)(i), 2. 74(1)(a)(ii), 3. 74(1)(b)(i), 4. 74(1)(c), 5. 74(2), 6. 81(1)

Residential Tenancies Act

When the inspector arrives, ask the purpose of the inspector’s visit and do not volunteer more information than you are required to give

Phone legal counsel immediately if you are being investigated

  • What the Director or authorized person can do
    • Enter the business premises of a landlord at any reasonable time (1)
    • At a reasonable time, enter other premises if believed to contain relevant information (2)
    • Request an employee or an agent of a landlord to:
      • Give written or oral replies to questions (3)
      • Produce any books, records, documents or other things and provide copies of them (4)
      • Provide any other information (5)
    • Examine and make copies of or temporarily remove books,records, documents or other things (6)
  • What the Director or authorized person must do
    • Upon removing books, records, documents or other things:
      • Give a receipt to the person from whom they were removed (7)
      • Return the items within a reasonable time (8)
  • You may be given an order, which may require you to:
    • Allow the Director or authorized person to enter the business premises, a private dwelling or other place and examine books, records, documents or other things (9)
    • Allow the Director or authorizes person to copy or remove the books, records, documents or other things (10)
    • Cooperate with the inspection (11)
  • What you must do
    • You must cooperate with the Director or authorized person (467)

1. 64(1), 2. 64(2), 3. 64(3)(a), 4. 64(3)(b), 5. 64(3)(c), 6. 64(4), 7. 64(5)(a), 8. 64(5)(c), 9. 65(1)(a), 10. 65(1)(b), 11. 65(1)(c), 12. 64(6)

Safer Communities and Neighbourhoods Act

When the inspector arrives, ask the purpose of the inspector’s visit and do not volunteer more information than you are required to give

Phone legal counsel immediately if you are being investigated

  • What the inspector may do
    • Conduct an investigation with respect to any matter considered necessary (1)
    • At any reasonable time, enter and inspect any building believed to be fortified (2)
    • Take measurements and photographs, conduct any tests or any type of audio visual recordings (3)
    • Require any person to produce any record believed to contain relevant information (4)
    • Enter a dwelling place with the occupant’s consent (5) or with the authority of a warrant (6)
    • Make copies of records (7)
  • What the inspector must do
    • Produce identification upon request (8)
    • Promptly return copies to the person from whom they were taken (9)
  • If you refuse the inspector’s entry into the building, the inspector may apply for a warrant. The warrant may allow the inspector to (10) :
    • Enter and search the building
      (11)
    • Seize and take possession of any record or other thing believed to contain relevant information (12)
  • What you must do
    • You must not obstruct or hinder the inspector or make a false or misleading statement (13)

*If you fail to comply with the inspection you may be fined up to $10,000 or up to a year imprisonment, or both. (14)

1. 40(1), 2. 40(2)(a), 3. 40(2)(b), 4. 40(2)(c), 5. 40(3)(a), 6. 40(3)(b), 7. 41(1), 8. 39, 9. 41(3), 10. 42(1), 11. 42(1)(a), 12. 42(1)(b), 13. 40(4), 14. 58(3)(a)(i)

Safety Codes Act

When the inspector arrives, ask the purpose of the inspector’s visit and do not volunteer more information than you are required to give

Phone legal counsel immediately if you are being investigated

  • What the safety codes officer can do
    • Inspect, review designs and examine and evaluate quality management systems and manufacturing and construction processes (1)
    • At any reasonable time and on reasonable notice, enter a private dwelling (2)
    • Inspect a private dwelling and review designs (3) with the consent of the owner or occupant (4) or with a warrant (5)
    • Be accompanied by any officer or by any thing considered to be of assistance (6)
    • Inspect, review, examine and evaluate, or photograph or record any thing, process or activity (7)
    • Require any person on the premises to be interviewed and make full disclosure orally or in writing (8)
    • Temporarily close or disconnect any thing, process or activity (9)
    • Review, perform or require to perform any tests and evaluations on any thing, process or activity (10)
    • Return any thing that has been removed to the person entitled to it (11)
    • Detain any thing believed to provide evidence of the commission of an offence (12)
  • What the safety codes officer must do
    • Provide identification and advice on inspections upon request (13)
  • What you must do
    • You must not hinder or interfere with the safety codes officer (14)
    • You must not make a false or misleading statement (15)
    • You must not fail to prepare, submit or retain any required information (16)

You may be given an order, which may require you to:
Stop preventing or interfering with a safety codes officer (17)

*If you fail to comply with the inspection you may be fined up to $15,000 (18) or up to six months imprisonment, (19) or both. (20)

1. 34(1), 2. 34(2), 3. 34(2), 4. 34(2)(a), 5. 34(2)(b), 6. 34(4)(a), 7. 34(4)(b), 8. 34(4)(c), 9. 34(4)(d), 10. 34(4)(e), 11. 34(6), 12. 34(8), 13. 34(3), 14. 67(1), 15. 67(2), 16. 67(3), 17. 37(1)(a), 18. 68(1)(a)(i), 19. 68(1)(a)(ii), 20. 68(1)(a)

School Act

When the inspector arrives, ask the purpose of the inspector’s visit and do not volunteer more information than you are required to give

Phone legal counsel immediately if you are being investigated

  • What the inspector may do
    • Inspect and evaluate teachers, schools, the operations of school districts and divisions, educational programs, instructional materials or buildings used as a school (1)
    • Inspect and examine the achievement of students and the policies, procedures, books and records of a school jurisdiction or a person operating a school (2)
    • Enter a building used as a school or any part of that building, other than a dwelling house (3)

1. 43(1), 2. 43(2), 3. 43(3)

Security Services and Investigators Act

When the inspector arrives, ask the purpose of the inspector’s visit and do not volunteer more information than you are required to give

Phone legal counsel immediately if you are being investigated

  • What the inspector may do
    • With a license, investigate, conduct surveillance activities or obtain information about:
      • Crimes, offences, contraventions of enactments or misconduct, or allegations of all of the above (1)
      • The cause of an accident, incident, property damage, personal injury or damage to premises (2)
      • The activity, conduct, character or reputation of a person (3)
      • The location of property (4)
      • The whereabouts of a person (5)
  • What the Registrar may do
    • Enter and inspect a business licensee’s premises and inspect the records (6)
    • Require a person to (7) :
      • Give written or oral replies to questions (8)
      • Produce any books, records, reports or documents or other items, including electronic records or documents (9)
      • Provide any other information that is requested (10)
      • Inspect, examine and make copies of or temporarily remove books, records, reports, documents or other items (11)
  • What the Registrar must do
    • Conduct the inspection during normal business hours or during an agreed time (12)
    • Produce identification upon request (13)
  • If you refuse to cooperate or if you interfere with the Registrar, you may be given an order. The order may allow the Registrar to (14) :
    • At any reasonable time, enter the premises and inspect the premises and records (15)
    • Require the production of any books, records, reports, documents or other items and examine and temporarily remove them, makecopies of, take photographs or otherwise record them (16)
  • What you must do
    • You must not hinder, obstruct or interfere with the Registrar (17)
    • You must not knowingly make a false or misleading statement or provide false information (18)

*If you fail to comply with the inspection you may be fined up to $5,000 or to a year imprisonment, or both. (19)

1. 2(1)(a), 2. 2(1)(b), 3. 2(1)(c), 4. 2(1)(d), 5. 2(1)(e), 6. 30(1), 7. 30(4), 8. 30(4)(a), 9. 30(4)(b), 10. 30(4)(c), 11. 30(5), 12. 30(2), 13. 30(3), 14. 7, 15. 7(a), 16. 7(b), 17. 44(1), 18. 44(2), 19. 46(1)(a)

Social Care Facilities Licensing Act

When the inspector arrives, ask the purpose of the inspector’s visit and do not volunteer more information than you are required to give

Phone legal counsel immediately if you are being investigated

  • What the director can do
    • With the permission of the holder of the license for, or the operator of, the social care facility (1) :
      • At any reasonable hour, enter any inspect social care facility (2)
      • Examine or temporarily remove any of the books, records or other documents to make copies of them (3)
      • Inspect and take samples of any material, food, medication or equipment (4)
      • Perform tests, take photographs or make recordings (5)
  • What the director must do
    • Give a receipt upon removing books, records or documents, (6) or material, food, medication or equipment (7)
    • Return books, records or documents to the person from whom they were taken, (8) or material, food, medication or equipment upon request (9)
    • In writing order the person operating the social care facility to take measures as specified in the order (10)
  • If you contravene this Act, you may be issued a stop order. The stop order may require you to (11) :
    • Cease the contravention (12)
    • Stop any activity occurring at the social care facility (13)
    • Stop the operation of a social care facility (14)
  • What you must do
    • If given a stop order, you must inform the director in writing of (15) :
      • Each person receiving care at the social care facility (16)
      • The guardian of any person receiving care in the social care facility, if applicable (17)

*If you fail to comply with the order you may be fined up to $200 for each day the offence continues. (18)

*If you fail to comply with the inspection you may be fined up to $500, and up to $100 a day in the case of a continuing offence after the first day. (19)

1. 7(1), 2. 7(1)(a), 3. 7(1)(b), 4. 7(1)(c), 5. 7(1)(d), 6. 7(3)(a), 7. 7(4)(a), 8. 7(3)(b), 9. 7(4)(b), 10. 8, 11. 11(1), 12. 11(2)(a), 13. 11(2)(b), 14. 11(2)(c), 15. 11(4), 16. 11(4)(a), 17. 11(4)(b), 18. 11(5), 19. 15

Stray Animals Act

When the inspector arrives, ask the purpose of the inspector’s visit and do not volunteer more information than you are required to give

Phone legal counsel immediately if you are being investigated

  • What the inspector may do
    • At any time capture and impound the livestock if found trespassing (1)
    • Destroy and arrange for the disposal of the livestock (2)
    • Issue a notice of impoundment (3)
    • Enter any premise without consent (4)

*If you contravene with the regulations you may be fined up to $2,000. (5)

1. 12, 2. 13, 3. 14(1), 4. 15, 6. 42

Supportive Living Accommodation Licensing Act

When the inspector arrives, ask the purpose of the inspector’s visit and do not volunteer more information than you are required to give

Phone legal counsel immediately if you are being investigated

  • What the inspector may do
    • With the permission of the operator of a supportive living accommodation (1) :
      • At any reasonable hour enter and inspect the supportive living accommodation (2)
      • Require the production of any books, records or other documents and examine them, or temporarily remove them to make copies (3)
      • Inspect and take samples of any food or equipment (4)
      • Perform tests, take photographs or make recordings (5)
      • Interview the operator of the supportive living accommodation (6)
    • Enter the accommodation of a resident with the permission of the resident or the resident’s legal representative (7)
    • Interview employees and residents, and anyone else who may have relevant information (8)
  • What the inspector must do
    • Give a receipt upon removing books, records or documents (9) or material, food or equipment (10)
    • Return items to the person from whom they were taken (11)
  • What you must do
    • On request, provide a list of names and contact information of residents, as well as residents’ legal representative (12)

*If you fail to comply with the inspection you may be fined up to $100,000 and to a further fine of up to $1,000 a day in the case of a continuing offence. (13)
1. 7(1), 2. 7(1)(a), 3. 7(1)(b), 4. 7(1)(c), 5. 7(1)(d), 6. 7(1)(e), 7. 7(2), 78 7(3), 9. 7(4)(a), 10. 7(5)(a), 11. 7(4)(b) and 7(5)(b), 12. 7(6), 13. 22

Tobacco Tax Act

When the inspector arrives, ask the purpose of the inspector’s visit and do not volunteer more information than you are required to give

Phone legal counsel immediately if you are being investigated

  • What the inspector may do
    • Inspect, audit or examine (1) the documents (2) or records of a person who is required to keep records (3)
    • Inspect and examine any property that may assist in determining or ascertaining (4) :
      • The accuracy of an inventory (5)
      • Any information that is or should be in the books or records (6)
      • The amount of tax imposed by this Act (7)
      • Whether a licence or report is required under this Act (8)
    • Enter the premises or place (9) believed to contain the records, property or documents (10)
    • Require the owner or manager and any other person on the premises to provide all reasonable assistance and answer all proper questions (11)
    • Enter a dwelling house with the consent of the occupant (12)
    • Without a warrant, enter any place or force stop a vehicle if believed that contravention has been committed (574) or that obtaining a warrant would cause a delay (13)
    • Seize any thing that contravenes this Act (15)
  • What you must do
    • Give the officer all reasonable assistance (16)
    • Make reasonable efforts to provide all information (17)

*If you fail to comply with the inspection you may be fined up to $20,000 or 2 years imprisonment, or both. (18)

1. 23(2)(a), 2. 23(2)(a)(ii), 3. 23(2)(a)(i), 4. 23(2)(b), 5. 23(2)(b)(i), 6. 23(2)(b)(ii), 7. 23(2)(b)(iii), 8. 23(2)(b)(iv), 9. 23(3)(a), 10. 23(3), 11. 23(3)(b), 12. 23(4), 13. 24(1)(a), 14. 24(1)(b), 15. 24(3), 16. 24(2)(a), 17. 24(2)(b), 18. 40

Tourism Levy Act

When the inspector arrives, ask the purpose of the inspector’s visit and do not volunteer more information than you are required to give

Phone legal counsel immediately if you are being investigated

  • What the inspector may do
    • Inspect, audit or examine (1) the records of a person who is required to keep the records (2)
    • Inspect, audit or examine (3) any document of the person required to keep the records (4)
    • Require the production for inspection, audit or examination of all relevant documents (5)
    • Enter the premises and place (6) believed to contain the records or documents (7)
    • Enter a dwelling house with the consent of the occupant (8)
  • What you must do
    • Give all reasonable assistance and make all reasonable efforts to answer all proper questions (9)

*If you fail to comply with the inspection you may be fined up to $1,000. (10)

1. 25(1)(a), 2. 25(1)(a)(i), 3. 25(1)(a), 4. 25(1)(a)(ii), 5. 25(1)(b), 6. 25(2)(a), 7. 25(2), 8. 25(3), 9. 25(2)(b), 10. 38(a)

Water Act

If you own or occupy property in Alberta, your premises may be inspected. An inspection is conducted to ensure compliance with the regulations. An investigation seeks to prosecute a suspected regulatory violation.

Phone legal counsel immediately if you are being investigated

When the inspector arrives, ask the purpose of the inspector’s visit and do not volunteer more information than you are required to give

  • What the inspector may do
    • At a reasonable hour, (1) enter or gain access to any place other than a private dwelling (2)
    • Enter a private dwelling only with the occupant’s consent (3) or with court order (4)
    • Require anything to be operated (5), use or move any machine or equipment (6)
    • Take samples (7) and conduct tests (8)
    • Require the production of documents (9), make copies (10), use any computer (11), or record information by any method (12)
    • Make inquiries either orally or in writing (13)
    • Take any other action that is required to carry out the inspection (14)
  • What you must do
    • You have a duty not to interfere with an inspection (15)
    • You have a duty not to provide false information (16)

*If you fail to comply with the inspection, you may be fined up to $50,000 (17). A corporation may be fined up to $500,000. (19)

1. 119(4)(a), 2. 119(1), 3. 119(4)(c)(i), 4. 119(4)(c)(ii), 5. 120(1)(a), 6. 120(1)(b), 7. 120(1)(c), 8. 120(1)(d), 9. 120(1)(e), 10. 120(1)(f), 11. 120(1)(g), 12. 120(1)(h), 13. 120(1)(k), 15. 120(1)(m), 16. 124, 17. 142(1)(a), 142(1)(b), 142(1)(g), 18. 143(2)(a), 19. 143(2)(b)

Weed Control Act

If you own or occupy property in Alberta, your premises may be inspected. An inspection is conducted to ensure compliance with the regulations. An investigation seeks to prosecute a suspected regulatory violation.

Phone legal counsel immediately if you are being investigated

When the inspector arrives, ask the purpose of the inspector’s visit and do not volunteer more information than you are required to give

  • What the inspector can do
    • Enter land or personal property at any reasonable time (1)
    • Buildings can be entered only if the owner or occupant consents (2) or after a 24 hour written notice is provided (3)
    • Private dwellings can only be entered with the consent of the owner or occupant (4)
    • Make inquiries, take samples, or perform tests (5)

1. 12(1), 2. 12(2)(a), 3. 12(2)(b), 4. 12(4), 5. 12(1)(a)

Wildlife Act

If you hunt or have wild animals in your possession, your property may be subject to an inspection. An inspection is conducted to ensure compliance with the regulations. An investigation seeks to prosecute a suspected regulatory violation.

Phone legal counsel immediately if you are being investigated

When the inspector arrives, ask the purpose of the inspector’s visit and do not volunteer more information than you are required to give

  • What the inspector may do
    • Access vehicles or premises if animals are either in plain sight or the officer has reasonable and probable grounds to believe animals are present (1)
    • Private dwellings cannot be accessed by the officer (2)
    • If obtaining a warrant is not reasonable given the circumstances, the officer may enter into any premise and search any container at any reasonable time (3)
    • Enter any premise reasonably believed to be licensed in connection with wildlife products (4)
    • If a weapon or ammunition is being transported in a vehicle and is in plain view of a wildlife officer, the officer may require you to sproduce that thing (5)
    • Inspect animals either being transported or which are in a structure
  • What you must do
    • You have a duty to produce a weapons (6) and animals (7) as required by the wildlife officer
    • You have a duty not to provide any false or misleading information during an inspection (8)
    • If you are the owner or employee of a licensed business under the Act, then you have a duty to provide all reasonable assistance and provide all information or documents that are requested (9)

*If you fail to comply with the inspection you may be fined $50,000 or imprisonment of up to 1 year, or both. (10)

1. 69(2), 2. 69(1)(a) and 69(2), 3. 71(1) and 71(3), 4. 72(1), 5. 70(1), 6. 70(2), 7. 69(4), 8. 88, 9. 72(4), 10. 92(2)